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A /r/cscareerquestions College Survival Guide

2020.09.17 21:30 cscqsim_repostbot A /r/cscareerquestions College Survival Guide

A /cscareerquestions College Survival Guide

With our final school year beginning, we were reflecting on how lost and confused we were when we first started university. We made a lot of mistakes (still am) along the way, but we’re in a much better place after learning from them and constantly putting ourselves out there. In hopes of shining some light and helping others, we decided to make a comprehensive guide for university students – based on our knowledge/experiences - on how to start your successful CS Career (or gain the wisdom to avoid CS altogether, more on this later).
rishiss Background: I am a 4th year student at UC Irvine majoring in Software Engineering. I am an incoming Software Engineer at a F100 company (received return offer after interning this summer). Before that, I interned at an R & D center for space, a small cloud company, and a small IT company. I have a 3.65 GPA, won a few awards at startup competitions/hackathons, and remain pretty active in my schools CS organizations.
chaitu65c Background: I’m a 4th year student at UC Irvine majoring in Computer Science. I’m currently a SWE Intern at a Unicorn and just wrapped up my 2nd internship at a Live Streaming Company(you can most likely tell who they are if you browse my history LOL). Before this, I interned at my school’s IT department, did research under a professor, and worked on a few small startups that other UCI students were building. I have a 3.3 GPA, won some awards along rishiss and was pretty active in my school’s CS clubs.
Disclaimer: “But rishiss/ and chaitu65c, you don’t work at a Big N, go to a target CS school, why should I take your advice?” You’re absolutely right; we are, by no means, ‘up there’ like some other folks on this sub. And, you don’t have to take our advice! Simply close this tab and do whatever else you want 😊. Our intent is to guide and prepare uni students for a CS career they enjoy, not work at Big N or get the highest TC. Life is much more than a dick-measuring contest, and the earlier you learn that the better.
We have also created a guide with our own personal advice/stories

Please, take this advice with a grain of salt. we’re not Tony Robinson or Tim Apple, we’re just two random reddit users.

Table of Contents:

This guide is divided into the following sections:

Is CS Right For Me?

The way we see it, there’s 3 types of people pursuing CS.
  1. Those who know CS isn’t for them – They’re in it for the money, to appease their parents, for a minorequirement, some external factor. They hated programming while taking the introductory CS course and just try to get done with their class/degree ASAP.
Advice: The majority of people who fall under this usually burn out quickly, as they aren’t motivated enough to learn the material and to apply themselves. This usually leads to them cheating and getting kicked out of their major, minor, or university altogether. Even if you manage to earn a degree, we've seen a large number of these folks endure a 'pre-mature' mid-life crisis or simply get fired from their jobs. Before you even start this major, you should definitely understand that this isn’t going to be easy, and you do have to put in a lot of effort to succeed. If this isn’t your cup of tea, definitely look into switching into another major you like.
Some folks are really passionate about technology, but don't want to pursue an entire Computer Science major or see themselves as Software Engineers. That's completely ok! Try looking into related majors or minors. We know many students who switched from CS to majors like Informatics, Business Information Management, and Economics and are thriving in tech-related roles like Data Analytics, Product Management, UI/UX Design, and Technical Recruiting. CS is not (and should not be) for everyone, and there is no shame in having the wisdom quit and move on.
  1. Those who don’t know if CS is for them – Where most of the CS community is IMO. These folks (like me, rishiss) are riddled with something called Imposter Syndrome: “the constant feeling of not being good enough or knowing enough to do your job well.”
Advice: For students, really take the time to learn and be open to anything you go through. Try sticking it out until you've taken a Data Structures course, one of the harder, more important courses out there. If you're not understanding the material or just aren't having fun with it, it’s definitely ok to switch majors/careers. Otherwise, CS just might be the career for you! Give it your best shot!
Admittedly, it's hard to provide stronger insight to overcoming Imposter Syndrome, as I am afflicted by it as well. For me, my IS derives from constantly comparing myself to others and confusing inexperience with incompetency. As such, I continue to work and focus on myself and take baby steps towards smaller goals I set out for myself. Knowing that I've put the effort to improve myself by just 1% everyday has made me a lot more confident.
  1. Those who know for a fact CS is for them – The diamonds in the rough. Learning and practicing CS material gives them a euphoric high.
Advice: Broaden your scope and learn new areas of CS! Who knows, you might find another new field that you really want to work in. Other than that, definitely make new friends regardless of whether they’re a CS major or not. Even try pursuing other hobbies like weightlifting, reading, dancing, or even public speaking. Don't limit yourself!

Freshman Year

We recommend not taking more than 3-4 classes in your first quartesemester, as you shouold keep an ample amount of time to go to professional/social events, make new friends and hang out with them, and pursue your interests.
We've seen a lot of freshmen (and upperclassmen) CS folks get cooped up in their dorm rooms playing video games and watching TV. We understand that these two are a passion for many, but please be cautious to not get consumed by them.
You have the privilege of pursuing higher education, making valuable connections/memories, and setting up your CS career in the trajectory you want. This year is the best year to take advantage of all that university has to offer; make the most of it.
One of the best ways to get involved in your school’s/region’s CS community is by joining clubs like ACM and WICS and participating in hackathons (see ‘Hackathon’ section below). Try pursuing internships and positions in these organizations and events as well!
One, major issue we see with freshmen (even upperclassmen) is their ignorance on all the avenues available in the CS Industry. So we’ve tried to narrow it down (not exhaustive).
  1. Cyber Security Engineer
  2. Front-End Web Developer
  3. Backend Web Developer
  4. UI/UX Designer
  5. DevOps/Cloud/Site-Reliability Engineers
  6. Mobile Engineer
  7. QA Engineer
  8. Product Manager
  9. Data Scientist (Machine Learning/AI)
  10. Embedded Software Engineer
  11. Systems Administrator
  12. Database Administrator (The Wizards)
  13. Networking Engineer
  14. Hardware Engineer
  15. OS Developer
  16. Video Game Developer
  17. Solutions Architect/Sales EngineeTechnical Account Manager
As a freshman, definitely take the time and see if you can picture yourself doing any of the listed fields. You should open yourself to all facets of CS and not just the “hot field” like Data Science and Machine Learning. Choosing a field because it’s “exciting” will usually lead to bad results as usually, other people are thinking just like you and will lead to over-saturation.
Our recommendation is to select the top 5 fields that have piqued your interest and experiment with the field. For example, if you are interested in Mobile App Development, try learning how to build an Android app from the ground up. A simple weather app or alarm clock is completely suitable for a first project/prototype. This lets you understand what skills you would need for this field and can serve as a forecast as to what your career would look like.
You should definitely look for an internship. Ignore the people that tell you to wait until you’re a junior, as it’s going to be very hard to get an internship if you don’t have any experience. Common places that most students don’t realize are available are usually IT departments at your school and even research with professors. Researching is highly recommended as you can definitely learn more about a field you can be interested in and if you’re interested in graduate school, that’s going to be a letter of recommendation that you can ask for.
If you’re considered a minority in Computer Science, look into first and second year internship programs as they’re meant to help you succeed. Here’s some programs that come to mind:
Google STEP
Microsoft Explore
Amazon Future Engineer
Uber STARInternhip
Facebook University
Another way to get internships is to research into smaller companies in your area. If the company is very small (<100 employees), consider reaching out to the CEO on LinkedIn. They might be able to help you! Also, take advantage of university recruiting websites like Handshake to see companies that directly hire from your school. More info on how to get an internship in the ‘Searching for an Internship’ section.

Sophomore Year

Now that you have basic programming knowledge, create your own website or GitHub account and start contributing to them with small personal projects. Nobody expects you to make a full-stack MERN project hosted and scaled on AWS at this stage. Focus instead on clean code, learning a framework or two on a language you like, and creating a small, robust feature. Grow from there!
If you weren’t able to find an internship/research opportunity as a freshman, community involvement, projects, and hackathons become especially important, as they are a great way to make you stand out on your resume and to recruiters when you reapply. As you brush up on your skills, apply again, and try your luck out.

Data Structures and Algorithms

In addition, you are most likely to take a Data Structures and Algorithms course this year. Make sure you are focusing on this class and writing good notes; you will need this knowledge when interviewing for internships and full-time jobs in the near future. Here is a link to our DS and A course (in C++) for reference

Junior Year

As a junior, companies are more willing to hire you for an internship, as they are likely to convert you into a full-time employee after graduating. This transition process is much easier than interviewing, and they'll usually offer you a higher compensation package if they want to convert you to a full-time employee. As you now should have knowledge of Data Structures and Algorithms, we highly recommend looking into coding interview prep sites like LeetCode and HackerRank or purchasing a prep book like CTCI or EPI (advanced).
Continue to attend hackathons, remain active in clubs/organizations, and grow your portfolio.
Classes will be much harder; expect the time for completing projects to double and the content covered to be much more difficult. We recommend taking no more than 2-3 upper-division CS courses and balancing your load with 1-2 GE classes. You should not be taking more than 16 units (assuming 4 units per course).
Start to get an idea of what field in CS you would like to pursue. Research what it takes to be successful in that field. You can do so by looking up job postings with that title on LinkedIn and looking at the requested skill set or take a look at Roadmap.sh. If you want to learn more about a related skill set and your school doesn't offer a course, consider picking up a class on udemy.com.

Senior Year

Focus heavily on your senior capstone, project classes, etc. as they're the last thing you can put on your resume before applying for full time. By now, you should have at least 3 polished, working projects on your GitHub that you can easily talk about with your recruiter. Preferably, they're aligned with the CS field you wish to enter.
If you were able to get a return offer from an internship, congrats! However, don’t immediately sign the offer. Once you have an offer, you should still try to interview at companies that you’re interested in by the deadline of the time to accept the offer. A good way of doing this is to reach out to a University recruiter for that company and explain the deadline you have. Usually, they’re really helpful and can potentially help skip interviews that you were supposed to do!
In addition, if your friends were able to intern at places you’re interested in, definitely ask for a referral or to send your resume to their recruiter. This usually reduces the risk of being ghosted by that company and increases your chances of getting hired!
Once you finally sign, definitely take the time to relax and enjoy. Just make sure you pass your classes and stay out of trouble

Classes:

What Classes should I take?

Should Already be Required:

Must Take:

Good to Have

How do I succeed in these classes?

rishiss: You’re more than likely coughing up hundreds, if not thousands, to attend university. It makes no sense to not take full advantage of the course and course staff.
The way I take notes: I learn from examples; I want to enter my code into the IDE to see what happens. I do a three way split; Google Docs on the left, IDE on top right and terminal (to compile, see output, make new file, etc) on bottom left. I note down the date and topic of the lecture and write questions I have in the comments on Docs. I make sure to highlight important information and possible test questions. I even share the link with friends!

In the quarters where I followed the steps above, I never got a grade lower than an A-.

Dealing with Bad Professors

During your time in college, you’re likely going to have at least one bad professor that might make it worse if you have to go to class. If that’s the case, it’s definitely fine to not go to class (as long as it’s not mandatory). However, if you do decide not to go, you must make sure you learn the material, so you won’t be behind on the coursework and studying for tests. In addition, you should be doing something productive on the side. If you don’t go to class and spend the time watching Netflix or playing video games, you’re losing time that you can spend on something that might be fun and can help you in the long run.

You can take Graduate Courses!?

chaitu65c: A highly underutilized set of courses you can take would be graduate courses. Graduate courses are usually very specialized in certain fields. If you were able to take all the undergraduate courses you wanted and still have spare classes to fill out, I'd recommend researching into taking Graduate courses! They’re a good way to build out your specialization and learn new, cool stuff! In addition, if you’re looking for classes to reach the required number of CS courses needed, your CS department might allow you to make the course count towards your degree!

Projects

They're super important.

How do I succeed in class projects?

Personal Projects and your CS Career

rishiss: Projects are your saving grace, especially if you are lacking work experience. They show technical aptitude, willingness to take initiative, and leadership. I’ve seen people with only projects on their resume get positions at the Big N. Projects are good ways to expand your knowledge of CS as the possibilities are endless! It is best to have a variety of projects dealing with a variety of technologies. As such, you can open yourself up to more positions and have more talking points during the interview.
I tend to edit the ‘Project’ Section of my resume with relevant projects and technologies. For instance, if I made a full stack web application and applied to a DevOps organization, I would highlight my AWS, CI/CD, and Terraform experiences more than my React/Node js work.
It is recommend the project is about something that motivates you and are passionate about e.g. video games, movies, books, sports, etc., as it is very easy to give up half way due to stress or lack of motivation/interest.
Like anything else in Computer Science, projects require you to break it down into smaller pieces. Start with the end in mind and draw out the intended architecture/functionalities. Start with what you know and research on the parts you don't know after that. You will be using these skills often in industry for any project/feature planning.
Spending 15-30 minutes a day is all you need to make a successful personal project. Don't make excuses and get coding!

Open Source Contributions

If you’ve ever noticed popular github repositories such as torvalds/linux, these are repositories where people from all over the world can report issues with it and someone can fix it. If you are able to make a contribution to a huge open source repository, it looks really good on your resume.

Hackathons

What are Hackathons?

Hackathons are large scale coding events, where students from around the area come together and collaborate - usually in teams of 4 (but you can go solo or with a partner!) - to build some software. Companies like Amazon, Northrop Grumman, Google, and Twilio sponsor awards related to best use of their technology. After 24 - 48 hours of intensive coding, participants submit their projects, whether it be an Android video game, Chrome Extension, productivity web app, etc. Submissions are shared with the companies and other hackathon organizers, where they select the best projects and award teams with swag like keyboards, gift cards, and even summer internships at their company.
Participating in hackathons are one of the best ways to hone your coding skills, network with companies and other students, and get free comfy T-shirts. It is also one of the best ways to gain industry knowledge, as representatives from these companies and hackathon organizers create numerous workshops and answer any questions you may have. Winning awards at these hackathons are also great resume boosters and talking points during interviews.
The biggest hackathon organizer is Major League Hacking. Visit their website, and you can see all the hackathons (remote or local) they are partnered with. Make to be on the lookout for application release dates from the hackathons and apply early.
With Covid, you may miss out on the free goodies and the in-person networking with students and professionals. However, most hackathons are accepting many more applicants due to it being virtual/remote this year.

What Should I Do At Hacakathons?

Take advantage of the resources available at hackathons. You’re attending a mini CS conference and should be, besides coding, networking with professionals, learning about the different companies, attending workshops, asking technical/non-technical questions to mentors, and getting as much free shit as you can get. Besides T-Shirts, companies give out vouchers to their services, applications to their internship and full-time positions, pillows, notebooks, water bottles, sweaters, and even backpacks.
If you’re looking to get an award, judges at hackathons care a lot about the pitch and the idea rather than the actual execution of the idea. Having an idea beforehand is also helpful, so you can spend your time focusing on the MVP.

Friends and Networking

chaitu65c: I think it’s definitely useful if you have two different friend groups: One dedicated to career and Non-Career Group.
Career Group - When making a friend group dedicated to career, try to be the dumbest person in the group, you’re definitely going to learn a lot from them as you soak up knowledge! Best ways of meeting friends who are career-driven can be through major specific orientation (actually how I met rishiss), courses, major related clubs, etc.
Non-Career Group - While having a group that motivates you for your career is important, it’s also important to have another friend group that can help you relax and to enjoy your time! A really good way to find these friend groups can be anywhere from your hall to General Education courses, social clubs like Circle K, fraternities/ sororities(if that’s your cup of tea) and others!
This is what has worked for us; no need to follow this exact format.

Resume

rishiss: Here are the few take-aways on writing a resume that gets through the ATS.

Searching for Internships

Searching for internships in CS is really different and harder from searching for internships in other professions. CS internship interview processes are often longer and much more technical on what you have learned as a CS major. We've prepped 2-3 months beforehand on CS concepts, whiteboarding, etc.

Timeline

This timeline primarily focuses on large, non-government/defense companies or competitive startups. This also assume you are applying for a summer internship.
August - September: Applications are opened to the public. Make sure to look out for positions and apply early, as most companies admit students on a rolling basis. A site that we used often is Apply.fyi. After applying, you may receive an automated (< 48 hours) invitation to complete an Online Assessment, consisting of multiple choice and/or coding questions about Data Structures, Algorithms, and Run Time Complexity. You will have usually 1-2 weeks to complete the assessment. Please that you may be rejected if you are not able to pass 90% of the questions on the assessment: Please also note that you may be instantly rejected due to things out of your control like years of experience, cancellation of internship, internal corporate issues, and more. Don't take rejections too seriously; just keep applying!
October - November: After passing the resume screen and the OA, you will be contacted by the company's recruiter for a phone screen. During the screen, you will probably be asked a few confirmation questions about your resume, sponsorship, years of experience with X, etc. and minor behavioral questions like what made you apply for this position, what are you pursuing outside of class, etc. You may also receive questions about your CS fundamentals e.g. what is a hashtable, whats the difference between a process and a thread, what is the runtime complexity of sorting a string, etc. As long as you're cool and confident (and not cringe/edgy), this part should be a breeze.
November - Mid January: If you made it through the two Thanos snaps, you will be invited to an onsite “Power-Day,” where interviewees attend 2-4 whiteboard interviews while being grilled on their technical skills and projects. Some companies make applicants go through a panel interview, where a team of 2-5 Software Engineers grill you on technical questions and your resume. You are often pampered with free travel, food, stipends, etc.
December - February: If you were deemed a good fit by the hiring committee, you will be extended an offer to intern at the company during the upcoming summer for 10-12 weeks. Remember, nothing is final until you receive an offer letter in your inbox. Some companies may also place you on a wait-list and offer you a spot if someone were to reject their offer letter.
For government orgs, defense companies, and smaller organizations, the recruiting season starts in February/March and usually ends in April and May. After applying online and passing the resume screen, you will usually be immediately pushed to an on-site interview. Most likely, you will be interviewing with your future boss/co-worker.
Please note that internships are not only offered in the summer, they are provided in the Fall, Winter, and Spring (rare) as well. The competition for these internships is usually lower, and the process usually starts 3-4 months beforehand.

How to get the Interview

Besides following resume tips, make sure to apply to as many places as you can. To get our first internships, we recall applying to approximately 250-300 places before we secured our internship plans for that summer. Also, if you do get ghosted, don’t take it personally, usually, university recruiters often spend so much time reviewing a lot of applications.
Other precautions to take to get noticed are to try attending career fairs if you can, you might be able to get an interview(worst case, free swag!). Other than that, try reaching out to upperclassmen or friends you know that interned and ask for referrals. It’s one of the best ways to get noticed!

What to expect

As part of the interview process, there’s 4 types of interviews that you should make sure you know.
Behavioral Interview: These interviews ask you questions about culture fit such as “Why are you a good candidate” and “Tell me about a time when you ...”
Coding/Technical Interview: These interviews ask you questions similar to what you see on Leetcode and Hackerrank. These interviews are designed to test your Data Structures and Algorithms knowledge.
System Design: System Design involves the interviewer testing your building to design a service/software and test your knowledge of understanding what things to use for the task and how you will integrate them together. You’re definitely not expected to know this and it’s not likely you’re gonna get asked this. Places that could ask you this are Unicorns, Trading Companies and Hedge Funds, and Big Established Companies.
Concurrency/Low Level Interviews: If the company’s biggest product involves low level principles such as networking principles and kernel stuff, there’s a possibility you can get asked this. Places that come to mind are hardware companies and trading firms.
Some companies may adopt only one of these interviews and some may adopt all.

How to Ace the Interview

It’s highly recommended that you look up the interview experiences that other students have faced so that you can potentially filter out companies with red flags and know what questions to expect. Common sources to search up on this would be Reddit (csMajors and cscareerquestions), Jumpstart (Relatively new portal for students), Glassdoor and maybe Blind (Aside from the toxic TC or GTFO culture, they do give good advice on interviews). With that said, here’s some advice we have when you approach each kind of interview we’ve seen.

Advice on Behavioral Interviews

Use the STAR method when describing your experiences. Being quantifiable with the impact of your actions will impress the interviewer.

Advice on Technical Interviews

Begin by reviewing your notes from the Data Structures and Algorithms class. Do not proceed further until you know how to implement these DS and As from scratch with the language of your choice(If you do know python, it’s recommended as there’s a lot of builtin features!). After doing so, we highly recommend a book like CTCI and EPI to gain a review on programming language details and your DS and As. Then, visit sites like LeetCode to practice real questions from major companies. A Facebook Engineer completed 600 LC problems and compiled the most important ones into a list here. During the interview, make sure to talk out loud about possible approaches and tradeoffs before whiteboarding. It is perfectly acceptable (often recommended) to ask the interviewer to ask questions about the problem and get clarification. Once you have an idea in mind and have talked about it with your interviewer, begin whiteboarding. While you talk about the final idea you want to use, write out pseudo code and comments about all the steps you need to implement in order to finish coding your solution. After that, start coding. Make sure to have proper function headers, syntax, spacing, classes/structs, imports, etc. After coding your solution, give a brief explanation and attempt to make it run with less space and in less time (if your solution is not as efficient as you think it can be).

Advice on System Design

These are somewhat hard to approach if you don’t have experience ever doing it. If you do have experience designing and building services in your spare time and as part of your work experience, definitely rely on your experience. An important thing is to definitely ask clarifying questions. There might be hidden requirements you didn’t think about that could drastically change the way you approach the solution.

Advice on Concurrency/Low level

Understand basic principles such as Processes vs Threads (A lot of people don’t know the difference!)TCP vs UDP and how to make an application thread safe. Other than that, it’s recommended that you familiarize yourself with basic OS concepts such as Deadlocks, locks that you can utilize to make an application thread safe, etc.

Searching for Full Time Jobs:

The big bucks.
The process for finding a Full-Time Job is usually very similar to finding an Internship. There’s three main differences are:
  1. Harder Questions. Ex: Google usually asks Leetcode Mediums to Hards + the special Leetcode Hard question that Google asks it’s applicants (they create a new one every year).
  2. More Rounds of Interviewing: For example, Microsoft makes interns do 2 rounds while New Grads do 4 rounds during the onsite part of the process.
  3. Compensation: Interns usually get an hourly rate and, possibly, a housing stipend. New grads, however, are given a yearly salary and, possibly, a sign-on bonus, stocks, and benefits e.g. health insurance, vacation days, etc.
The process for finding a Full-time Job won’t really change as much as finding an internship, but keep in mind that the bar is higher. This is probably the biggest reason why you should look into interning early; by getting an offer at the place you like, you don’t need to go through the daunting process of finding a full-time role.
Get as many offers as you can this time around, so you can negotiate and select the position, company, compensation, and location that works best for you.

Negotiation

Negotiation is a really powerful tool that you can use in the interview process, even as an intern. There’s a lot of guides to negotiation and we recommend Nick Singh’s guide (Look at his LinkedIn and newsletters) for more.

Final Thoughts

University is a probably the most important time of your life and a foundational block of your CS Career. Like any foundation, it must be sturdy and takes a tremendous amount and energy of time to develop. Take advantage of all the resources (like this one) you can get your hands on. Definitely learn from the mistakes people have made and make sure you don’t repeat the same mistakes.
‘Stay hungry. Stay foolish’ - Steve Jobs
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2020.09.17 06:53 rishiss A /r/cscareerquestions College Survival Guide

A /cscareerquestions College Survival Guide

With our final school year beginning, we were reflecting on how lost and confused we were when we first started university. We made a lot of mistakes (still am) along the way, but we’re in a much better place after learning from them and constantly putting ourselves out there. In hopes of shining some light and helping others, we decided to make a comprehensive guide for university students – based on our knowledge/experiences - on how to start your successful CS Career (or gain the wisdom to avoid CS altogether, more on this later).
rishiss Background: I am a 4th year student at UC Irvine majoring in Software Engineering. I am an incoming Software Engineer at a F100 company (received return offer after interning this summer). Before that, I interned at an R & D center for space, a small cloud company, and a small IT company. I have a 3.65 GPA, won a few awards at startup competitions/hackathons, and remain pretty active in my schools CS organizations.
chaitu65c Background: I’m a 4th year student at UC Irvine majoring in Computer Science. I’m currently a SWE Intern at a Unicorn and just wrapped up my 2nd internship at a Live Streaming Company(you can most likely tell who they are if you browse my history LOL). Before this, I interned at my school’s IT department, did research under a professor, and worked on a few small startups that other UCI students were building. I have a 3.3 GPA, won some awards along rishiss and was pretty active in my school’s CS clubs.
Disclaimer: “But rishiss/ and chaitu65c, you don’t work at a Big N, go to a target CS school, why should I take your advice?” You’re absolutely right; we are, by no means, ‘up there’ like some other folks on this sub. And, you don’t have to take our advice! Simply close this tab and do whatever else you want 😊. Our intent is to guide and prepare uni students for a CS career they enjoy, not work at Big N or get the highest TC. Life is much more than a dick-measuring contest, and the earlier you learn that the better.
We have also created a guide with our own personal advice/stories

Please, take this advice with a grain of salt. we’re not Tony Robinson or Tim Apple, we’re just two random reddit users.

Table of Contents:

This guide is divided into the following sections:

Is CS Right For Me?

The way we see it, there’s 3 types of people pursuing CS.
  1. Those who know CS isn’t for them – They’re in it for the money, to appease their parents, for a minorequirement, some external factor. They hated programming while taking the introductory CS course and just try to get done with their class/degree ASAP.
Advice: The majority of people who fall under this usually burn out quickly, as they aren’t motivated enough to learn the material and to apply themselves. This usually leads to them cheating and getting kicked out of their major, minor, or university altogether. Even if you manage to earn a degree, we've seen a large number of these folks endure a 'pre-mature' mid-life crisis or simply get fired from their jobs. Before you even start this major, you should definitely understand that this isn’t going to be easy, and you do have to put in a lot of effort to succeed. If this isn’t your cup of tea, definitely look into switching into another major you like.
Some folks are really passionate about technology, but don't want to pursue an entire Computer Science major or see themselves as Software Engineers. That's completely ok! Try looking into related majors or minors. We know many students who switched from CS to majors like Informatics, Business Information Management, and Economics and are thriving in tech-related roles like Data Analytics, Product Management, UI/UX Design, and Technical Recruiting. CS is not (and should not be) for everyone, and there is no shame in having the wisdom quit and move on.
  1. Those who don’t know if CS is for them – Where most of the CS community is IMO. These folks (like me, rishiss) are riddled with something called Imposter Syndrome: “the constant feeling of not being good enough or knowing enough to do your job well.”
Advice: For students, really take the time to learn and be open to anything you go through. Try sticking it out until you've taken a Data Structures course, one of the harder, more important courses out there. If you're not understanding the material or just aren't having fun with it, it’s definitely ok to switch majors/careers. Otherwise, CS just might be the career for you! Give it your best shot!
Admittedly, it's hard to provide stronger insight to overcoming Imposter Syndrome, as I am afflicted by it as well. For me, my IS derives from constantly comparing myself to others and confusing inexperience with incompetency. As such, I continue to work and focus on myself and take baby steps towards smaller goals I set out for myself. Knowing that I've put the effort to improve myself by just 1% everyday has made me a lot more confident.
  1. Those who know for a fact CS is for them – The diamonds in the rough. Learning and practicing CS material gives them a euphoric high.
Advice: Broaden your scope and learn new areas of CS! Who knows, you might find another new field that you really want to work in. Other than that, definitely make new friends regardless of whether they’re a CS major or not. Even try pursuing other hobbies like weightlifting, reading, dancing, or even public speaking. Don't limit yourself!

Freshman Year

We recommend not taking more than 3-4 classes in your first quartesemester, as you shouold keep an ample amount of time to go to professional/social events, make new friends and hang out with them, and pursue your interests.
We've seen a lot of freshmen (and upperclassmen) CS folks get cooped up in their dorm rooms playing video games and watching TV. We understand that these two are a passion for many, but please be cautious to not get consumed by them.
You have the privilege of pursuing higher education, making valuable connections/memories, and setting up your CS career in the trajectory you want. This year is the best year to take advantage of all that university has to offer; make the most of it.
One of the best ways to get involved in your school’s/region’s CS community is by joining clubs like ACM and WICS and participating in hackathons (see ‘Hackathon’ section below). Try pursuing internships and positions in these organizations and events as well!
One, major issue we see with freshmen (even upperclassmen) is their ignorance on all the avenues available in the CS Industry. So we’ve tried to narrow it down (not exhaustive).
  1. Cyber Security Engineer
  2. Front-End Web Developer
  3. Backend Web Developer
  4. UI/UX Designer
  5. DevOps/Cloud/Site-Reliability Engineers
  6. Mobile Engineer
  7. QA Engineer
  8. Product Manager
  9. Data Scientist (Machine Learning/AI)
  10. Embedded Software Engineer
  11. Systems Administrator
  12. Database Administrator (The Wizards)
  13. Networking Engineer
  14. Hardware Engineer
  15. OS Developer
  16. Video Game Developer
  17. Solutions Architect/Sales EngineeTechnical Account Manager
As a freshman, definitely take the time and see if you can picture yourself doing any of the listed fields. You should open yourself to all facets of CS and not just the “hot field” like Data Science and Machine Learning. Choosing a field because it’s “exciting” will usually lead to bad results as usually, other people are thinking just like you and will lead to over-saturation.
Our recommendation is to select the top 5 fields that have piqued your interest and experiment with the field. For example, if you are interested in Mobile App Development, try learning how to build an Android app from the ground up. A simple weather app or alarm clock is completely suitable for a first project/prototype. This lets you understand what skills you would need for this field and can serve as a forecast as to what your career would look like.
You should definitely look for an internship. Ignore the people that tell you to wait until you’re a junior, as it’s going to be very hard to get an internship if you don’t have any experience. Common places that most students don’t realize are available are usually IT departments at your school and even research with professors. Researching is highly recommended as you can definitely learn more about a field you can be interested in and if you’re interested in graduate school, that’s going to be a letter of recommendation that you can ask for.
If you’re considered a minority in Computer Science, look into first and second year internship programs as they’re meant to help you succeed. Here’s some programs that come to mind:
Google STEP
Microsoft Explore
Amazon Future Engineer
Uber STARInternhip
Facebook University
Another way to get internships is to research into smaller companies in your area. If the company is very small (<100 employees), consider reaching out to the CEO on LinkedIn. They might be able to help you! Also, take advantage of university recruiting websites like Handshake to see companies that directly hire from your school. More info on how to get an internship in the ‘Searching for an Internship’ section.

Sophomore Year

Now that you have basic programming knowledge, create your own website or GitHub account and start contributing to them with small personal projects. Nobody expects you to make a full-stack MERN project hosted and scaled on AWS at this stage. Focus instead on clean code, learning a framework or two on a language you like, and creating a small, robust feature. Grow from there!
If you weren’t able to find an internship/research opportunity as a freshman, community involvement, projects, and hackathons become especially important, as they are a great way to make you stand out on your resume and to recruiters when you reapply. As you brush up on your skills, apply again, and try your luck out.

Data Structures and Algorithms

In addition, you are most likely to take a Data Structures and Algorithms course this year. Make sure you are focusing on this class and writing good notes; you will need this knowledge when interviewing for internships and full-time jobs in the near future. Here is a link to our DS and A course (in C++) for reference

Junior Year

As a junior, companies are more willing to hire you for an internship, as they are likely to convert you into a full-time employee after graduating. This transition process is much easier than interviewing, and they'll usually offer you a higher compensation package if they want to convert you to a full-time employee. As you now should have knowledge of Data Structures and Algorithms, we highly recommend looking into coding interview prep sites like LeetCode and HackerRank or purchasing a prep book like CTCI or EPI (advanced).
Continue to attend hackathons, remain active in clubs/organizations, and grow your portfolio.
Classes will be much harder; expect the time for completing projects to double and the content covered to be much more difficult. We recommend taking no more than 2-3 upper-division CS courses and balancing your load with 1-2 GE classes. You should not be taking more than 16 units (assuming 4 units per course).
Start to get an idea of what field in CS you would like to pursue. Research what it takes to be successful in that field. You can do so by looking up job postings with that title on LinkedIn and looking at the requested skill set or take a look at Roadmap.sh. If you want to learn more about a related skill set and your school doesn't offer a course, consider picking up a class on udemy.com.

Senior Year

Focus heavily on your senior capstone, project classes, etc. as they're the last thing you can put on your resume before applying for full time. By now, you should have at least 3 polished, working projects on your GitHub that you can easily talk about with your recruiter. Preferably, they're aligned with the CS field you wish to enter.
If you were able to get a return offer from an internship, congrats! However, don’t immediately sign the offer. Once you have an offer, you should still try to interview at companies that you’re interested in by the deadline of the time to accept the offer. A good way of doing this is to reach out to a University recruiter for that company and explain the deadline you have. Usually, they’re really helpful and can potentially help skip interviews that you were supposed to do!
In addition, if your friends were able to intern at places you’re interested in, definitely ask for a referral or to send your resume to their recruiter. This usually reduces the risk of being ghosted by that company and increases your chances of getting hired!
Once you finally sign, definitely take the time to relax and enjoy. Just make sure you pass your classes and stay out of trouble

Classes:

What Classes should I take?

Should Already be Required:

Must Take:

Good to Have

How do I succeed in these classes?

rishiss: You’re more than likely coughing up hundreds, if not thousands, to attend university. It makes no sense to not take full advantage of the course and course staff.
The way I take notes: I learn from examples; I want to enter my code into the IDE to see what happens. I do a three way split; Google Docs on the left, IDE on top right and terminal (to compile, see output, make new file, etc) on bottom left. I note down the date and topic of the lecture and write questions I have in the comments on Docs. I make sure to highlight important information and possible test questions. I even share the link with friends!

In the quarters where I followed the steps above, I never got a grade lower than an A-.

Dealing with Bad Professors

During your time in college, you’re likely going to have at least one bad professor that might make it worse if you have to go to class. If that’s the case, it’s definitely fine to not go to class (as long as it’s not mandatory). However, if you do decide not to go, you must make sure you learn the material, so you won’t be behind on the coursework and studying for tests. In addition, you should be doing something productive on the side. If you don’t go to class and spend the time watching Netflix or playing video games, you’re losing time that you can spend on something that might be fun and can help you in the long run.

You can take Graduate Courses!?

chaitu65c: A highly underutilized set of courses you can take would be graduate courses. Graduate courses are usually very specialized in certain fields. If you were able to take all the undergraduate courses you wanted and still have spare classes to fill out, I'd recommend researching into taking Graduate courses! They’re a good way to build out your specialization and learn new, cool stuff! In addition, if you’re looking for classes to reach the required number of CS courses needed, your CS department might allow you to make the course count towards your degree!

Projects

They're super important.

How do I succeed in class projects?

Personal Projects and your CS Career

rishiss: Projects are your saving grace, especially if you are lacking work experience. They show technical aptitude, willingness to take initiative, and leadership. I’ve seen people with only projects on their resume get positions at the Big N. Projects are good ways to expand your knowledge of CS as the possibilities are endless! It is best to have a variety of projects dealing with a variety of technologies. As such, you can open yourself up to more positions and have more talking points during the interview.
I tend to edit the ‘Project’ Section of my resume with relevant projects and technologies. For instance, if I made a full stack web application and applied to a DevOps organization, I would highlight my AWS, CI/CD, and Terraform experiences more than my React/Node js work.
It is recommend the project is about something that motivates you and are passionate about e.g. video games, movies, books, sports, etc., as it is very easy to give up half way due to stress or lack of motivation/interest.
Like anything else in Computer Science, projects require you to break it down into smaller pieces. Start with the end in mind and draw out the intended architecture/functionalities. Start with what you know and research on the parts you don't know after that. You will be using these skills often in industry for any project/feature planning.
Spending 15-30 minutes a day is all you need to make a successful personal project. Don't make excuses and get coding!

Open Source Contributions

If you’ve ever noticed popular github repositories such as torvalds/linux, these are repositories where people from all over the world can report issues with it and someone can fix it. If you are able to make a contribution to a huge open source repository, it looks really good on your resume.

Hackathons

What are Hackathons?

Hackathons are large scale coding events, where students from around the area come together and collaborate - usually in teams of 4 (but you can go solo or with a partner!) - to build some software. Companies like Amazon, Northrop Grumman, Google, and Twilio sponsor awards related to best use of their technology. After 24 - 48 hours of intensive coding, participants submit their projects, whether it be an Android video game, Chrome Extension, productivity web app, etc. Submissions are shared with the companies and other hackathon organizers, where they select the best projects and award teams with swag like keyboards, gift cards, and even summer internships at their company.
Participating in hackathons are one of the best ways to hone your coding skills, network with companies and other students, and get free comfy T-shirts. It is also one of the best ways to gain industry knowledge, as representatives from these companies and hackathon organizers create numerous workshops and answer any questions you may have. Winning awards at these hackathons are also great resume boosters and talking points during interviews.
The biggest hackathon organizer is Major League Hacking. Visit their website, and you can see all the hackathons (remote or local) they are partnered with. Make to be on the lookout for application release dates from the hackathons and apply early.
With Covid, you may miss out on the free goodies and the in-person networking with students and professionals. However, most hackathons are accepting many more applicants due to it being virtual/remote this year.

What Should I Do At Hacakathons?

Take advantage of the resources available at hackathons. You’re attending a mini CS conference and should be, besides coding, networking with professionals, learning about the different companies, attending workshops, asking technical/non-technical questions to mentors, and getting as much free shit as you can get. Besides T-Shirts, companies give out vouchers to their services, applications to their internship and full-time positions, pillows, notebooks, water bottles, sweaters, and even backpacks.
If you’re looking to get an award, judges at hackathons care a lot about the pitch and the idea rather than the actual execution of the idea. Having an idea beforehand is also helpful, so you can spend your time focusing on the MVP.

Friends and Networking

chaitu65c: I think it’s definitely useful if you have two different friend groups: One dedicated to career and Non-Career Group.
Career Group - When making a friend group dedicated to career, try to be the dumbest person in the group, you’re definitely going to learn a lot from them as you soak up knowledge! Best ways of meeting friends who are career-driven can be through major specific orientation (actually how I met rishiss), courses, major related clubs, etc.
Non-Career Group - While having a group that motivates you for your career is important, it’s also important to have another friend group that can help you relax and to enjoy your time! A really good way to find these friend groups can be anywhere from your hall to General Education courses, social clubs like Circle K, fraternities/ sororities(if that’s your cup of tea) and others!
This is what has worked for us; no need to follow this exact format.

Resume

rishiss: Here are the few take-aways on writing a resume that gets through the ATS.

Searching for Internships

Searching for internships in CS is really different and harder from searching for internships in other professions. CS internship interview processes are often longer and much more technical on what you have learned as a CS major. We've prepped 2-3 months beforehand on CS concepts, whiteboarding, etc.

Timeline

This timeline primarily focuses on large, non-government/defense companies or competitive startups. This also assume you are applying for a summer internship.
August - September: Applications are opened to the public. Make sure to look out for positions and apply early, as most companies admit students on a rolling basis. A site that we used often is Apply.fyi. After applying, you may receive an automated (< 48 hours) invitation to complete an Online Assessment, consisting of multiple choice and/or coding questions about Data Structures, Algorithms, and Run Time Complexity. You will have usually 1-2 weeks to complete the assessment. Please that you may be rejected if you are not able to pass 90% of the questions on the assessment: Please also note that you may be instantly rejected due to things out of your control like years of experience, cancellation of internship, internal corporate issues, and more. Don't take rejections too seriously; just keep applying!
October - November: After passing the resume screen and the OA, you will be contacted by the company's recruiter for a phone screen. During the screen, you will probably be asked a few confirmation questions about your resume, sponsorship, years of experience with X, etc. and minor behavioral questions like what made you apply for this position, what are you pursuing outside of class, etc. You may also receive questions about your CS fundamentals e.g. what is a hashtable, whats the difference between a process and a thread, what is the runtime complexity of sorting a string, etc. As long as you're cool and confident (and not cringe/edgy), this part should be a breeze.
November - Mid January: If you made it through the two Thanos snaps, you will be invited to an onsite “Power-Day,” where interviewees attend 2-4 whiteboard interviews while being grilled on their technical skills and projects. Some companies make applicants go through a panel interview, where a team of 2-5 Software Engineers grill you on technical questions and your resume. You are often pampered with free travel, food, stipends, etc.
December - February: If you were deemed a good fit by the hiring committee, you will be extended an offer to intern at the company during the upcoming summer for 10-12 weeks. Remember, nothing is final until you receive an offer letter in your inbox. Some companies may also place you on a wait-list and offer you a spot if someone were to reject their offer letter.
For government orgs, defense companies, and smaller organizations, the recruiting season starts in February/March and usually ends in April and May. After applying online and passing the resume screen, you will usually be immediately pushed to an on-site interview. Most likely, you will be interviewing with your future boss/co-worker.
Please note that internships are not only offered in the summer, they are provided in the Fall, Winter, and Spring (rare) as well. The competition for these internships is usually lower, and the process usually starts 3-4 months beforehand.

How to get the Interview

Besides following resume tips, make sure to apply to as many places as you can. To get our first internships, we recall applying to approximately 250-300 places before we secured our internship plans for that summer. Also, if you do get ghosted, don’t take it personally, usually, university recruiters often spend so much time reviewing a lot of applications.
Other precautions to take to get noticed are to try attending career fairs if you can, you might be able to get an interview(worst case, free swag!). Other than that, try reaching out to upperclassmen or friends you know that interned and ask for referrals. It’s one of the best ways to get noticed!

What to expect

As part of the interview process, there’s 4 types of interviews that you should make sure you know.
Behavioral Interview: These interviews ask you questions about culture fit such as “Why are you a good candidate” and “Tell me about a time when you ...”
Coding/Technical Interview: These interviews ask you questions similar to what you see on Leetcode and Hackerrank. These interviews are designed to test your Data Structures and Algorithms knowledge.
System Design: System Design involves the interviewer testing your building to design a service/software and test your knowledge of understanding what things to use for the task and how you will integrate them together. You’re definitely not expected to know this and it’s not likely you’re gonna get asked this. Places that could ask you this are Unicorns, Trading Companies and Hedge Funds, and Big Established Companies.
Concurrency/Low Level Interviews: If the company’s biggest product involves low level principles such as networking principles and kernel stuff, there’s a possibility you can get asked this. Places that come to mind are hardware companies and trading firms.
Some companies may adopt only one of these interviews and some may adopt all.

How to Ace the Interview

It’s highly recommended that you look up the interview experiences that other students have faced so that you can potentially filter out companies with red flags and know what questions to expect. Common sources to search up on this would be Reddit (csMajors and cscareerquestions), Jumpstart (Relatively new portal for students), Glassdoor and maybe Blind (Aside from the toxic TC or GTFO culture, they do give good advice on interviews). With that said, here’s some advice we have when you approach each kind of interview we’ve seen.

Advice on Behavioral Interviews

Use the STAR method when describing your experiences. Being quantifiable with the impact of your actions will impress the interviewer.

Advice on Technical Interviews

Begin by reviewing your notes from the Data Structures and Algorithms class. Do not proceed further until you know how to implement these DS and As from scratch with the language of your choice(If you do know python, it’s recommended as there’s a lot of builtin features!). After doing so, we highly recommend a book like CTCI and EPI to gain a review on programming language details and your DS and As. Then, visit sites like LeetCode to practice real questions from major companies. A Facebook Engineer completed 600 LC problems and compiled the most important ones into a list here. During the interview, make sure to talk out loud about possible approaches and tradeoffs before whiteboarding. It is perfectly acceptable (often recommended) to ask the interviewer to ask questions about the problem and get clarification. Once you have an idea in mind and have talked about it with your interviewer, begin whiteboarding. While you talk about the final idea you want to use, write out pseudo code and comments about all the steps you need to implement in order to finish coding your solution. After that, start coding. Make sure to have proper function headers, syntax, spacing, classes/structs, imports, etc. After coding your solution, give a brief explanation and attempt to make it run with less space and in less time (if your solution is not as efficient as you think it can be).

Advice on System Design

These are somewhat hard to approach if you don’t have experience ever doing it. If you do have experience designing and building services in your spare time and as part of your work experience, definitely rely on your experience. An important thing is to definitely ask clarifying questions. There might be hidden requirements you didn’t think about that could drastically change the way you approach the solution.

Advice on Concurrency/Low level

Understand basic principles such as Processes vs Threads (A lot of people don’t know the difference!)TCP vs UDP and how to make an application thread safe. Other than that, it’s recommended that you familiarize yourself with basic OS concepts such as Deadlocks, locks that you can utilize to make an application thread safe, etc.

Searching for Full Time Jobs:

The big bucks.
The process for finding a Full-Time Job is usually very similar to finding an Internship. There’s three main differences are:
  1. Harder Questions. Ex: Google usually asks Leetcode Mediums to Hards + the special Leetcode Hard question that Google asks it’s applicants (they create a new one every year).
  2. More Rounds of Interviewing: For example, Microsoft makes interns do 2 rounds while New Grads do 4 rounds during the onsite part of the process.
  3. Compensation: Interns usually get an hourly rate and, possibly, a housing stipend. New grads, however, are given a yearly salary and, possibly, a sign-on bonus, stocks, and benefits e.g. health insurance, vacation days, etc.
The process for finding a Full-time Job won’t really change as much as finding an internship, but keep in mind that the bar is higher. This is probably the biggest reason why you should look into interning early; by getting an offer at the place you like, you don’t need to go through the daunting process of finding a full-time role.
Get as many offers as you can this time around, so you can negotiate and select the position, company, compensation, and location that works best for you.

Negotiation

Negotiation is a really powerful tool that you can use in the interview process, even as an intern. There’s a lot of guides to negotiation and we recommend Nick Singh’s guide (Look at his LinkedIn and newsletters) for more.

Final Thoughts

University is a probably the most important time of your life and a foundational block of your CS Career. Like any foundation, it must be sturdy and takes a tremendous amount and energy of time to develop. Take advantage of all the resources (like this one) you can get your hands on. Definitely learn from the mistakes people have made and make sure you don’t repeat the same mistakes.
‘Stay hungry. Stay foolish’ - Steve Jobs
submitted by rishiss to cscareerquestions [link] [comments]


2020.09.16 12:37 Previous_Soil3 Can only reach my application on HTTP not HTTPS

update
I did
kubectl get ingressroute -A
NAMESPACE NAME AGE
example example-ingress 44h
example example-ingress-route 40h
and then I did
kubectl delete ingress example-ingress -n example
ingress.extensions "example-ingress" deleted
and now http://example.com gives 404
but https://example.com works fine with secured cert and all?

I have a cluster where I have a simple dockerized php app that just displays “hello” on the page.

In the cluster I have installed traefik and cert-manager via their helm charts, as I am using cert-manager for lets encrypt:

https://hub.helm.sh/charts/traefik/traefik

https://hub.helm.sh/charts/jetstack/cert-manager

When I visit my domain via http it works and I can see **“hello”**

But when I visit my domain with https it just says **“404 page not found”**


----------


When I click the https shield on the browser and click more information it informs me:

Verified by: CN=TRAEFIK DEFAULT CERT
DNS Name 31047792e374617b441b6f82cacde627.1dc1fc2f960b83b2f533f2ff411e82bf.traefik.default

----------

For setting up cert-manager I followed most of this guide:
https://opensource.com/article/20/3/ssl-letsencrypt-k3s

----------

When I do:

kubectl get issuers -n example

NAME READY AGE
example-issuer-staging True 15h

----------

When I do:

kubectl get certificates -n example

NAME READY SECRET AGE
domain-com True domain-com-tls 15h

----------

When I do a curl on http and https here are my results:


curl -v http://example.com

* Trying domain-ip…
* TCP_NODELAY set
* Connected to example.com (domain-ip) port 80 (#0)
> GET / HTTP/1.1
> Host: example.com
> User-Agent: curl/7.64.1
> Accept: */*
>
< HTTP/1.1 200 OK
< Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
< Date: Tue, 15 Sep 2020 15:41:45 GMT
< Server: nginx
< X-Powered-By: PHP/7.4.9
< Content-Length: 5
<
* Connection #0 to host example.com left intact
hello* Closing connection 0



curl -v https://example.com

* Trying domain-ip...
* TCP_NODELAY set
* Connected to example.com (domain-ip) port 443 (#0)
* ALPN, offering h2
* ALPN, offering http/1.1
* successfully set certificate verify locations:
* CAfile: /etc/ssl/cert.pem
CApath: none
* TLSv1.2 (OUT), TLS handshake, Client hello (1):
* TLSv1.2 (IN), TLS handshake, Server hello (2):
* TLSv1.2 (IN), TLS handshake, Certificate (11):
* TLSv1.2 (OUT), TLS alert, unknown CA (560):
* SSL certificate problem: unable to get local issuer certificate
* Closing connection 0
curl: (60) SSL certificate problem: unable to get local issuer certificate
More details here: https://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html
curl failed to verify the legitimacy of the server and therefore could not
establish a secure connection to it. To learn more about this situation and
how to fix it, please visit the web page mentioned above.


----------


When I do:

kubectl get secret -n example

NAME TYPE DATA AGE
domain-com-tls kubernetes.io/tls2 19h

----------


When I do:

kubectl get ing -A

NAMESPACE NAME CLASS HOSTS ADDRESS PORTS AGE
example example-ingress example.com80, 443 13d


----------


When I do:

kubectl get svc -A

NAMESPACE NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE
cert-manager cert-manager ClusterIP 10.245.95.66 9402/TCP 16h
cert-manager cert-manager-webhook ClusterIP 10.245.86.7 443/TCP 16h
default kubernetes ClusterIP 10.245.0.1 443/TCP 23d
example example-app ClusterIP 10.245.132.184 80/TCP,443/TCP 15m
kube-system kube-dns ClusterIP 10.245.0.10 53/UDP,53/TCP,9153/TCP 23d
routing traefik LoadBalancer 10.245.21.52external-ip 80:31635/TCP,443:31142/TCP 2d1


----------


When I do:

kubectl describe certificates domain-com -n example

Name: domain-com
Namespace: example
Labels:
Annotations:
API Version: cert-manager.io/v1
Kind: Certificate
Metadata:
Creation Timestamp: 2020-09-15T17:41:27Z
Generation: 1
Managed Fields:
API Version: cert-manager.io/v1
Fields Type: FieldsV1
fieldsV1:
f:status:
.:
f:conditions:
f:notAfter:
f:notBefore:
f:renewalTime:
Manager: controller
Operation: Update
Time: 2020-09-15T17:41:27Z
API Version: cert-manager.io/v1
Fields Type: FieldsV1
fieldsV1:
f:metadata:
f:annotations:
.:
f:kubectl.kubernetes.io/last-applied-configuration:
f:spec:
.:
f:commonName:
f:dnsNames:
f:issuerRef:
.:
f:kind:
f:name:
f:secretName:
Manager: kubectl
Operation: Update
Time: 2020-09-15T17:41:27Z
Resource Version: 2018179
Self Link: /apis/cert-manager.io/v1/namespaces/example/certificates/domain-com
UID: 1ddb2c20-0fa5-414b-af4f-32c4e02cf41f
Spec:
Common Name: example.com
Dns Names:
example.com
Issuer Ref:
Kind: Issuer
Name: example-issuer
Secret Name: domain-com-tls
Status:
Conditions:
Last Transition Time: 2020-09-15T17:41:27Z
Message: Certificate is up to date and has not expired
Reason: Ready
Status: True
Type: Ready
Not After: 2020-12-14T12:11:24Z
Not Before: 2020-09-15T12:11:24Z
Renewal Time: 2020-11-14T12:11:24Z
Events:


----------


When I do:

kubectl describe pods -n example example-app-main-g9tzn

Name: example-app-main-g9tzn
Namespace: example
Priority: 0
Node: cluster-name-3gkmj/10.110.0.5
Start Time: Wed, 16 Sep 2020 11:16:06 +0200
Labels: app=example-app
Annotations:
Status: Running
IP: 10.244.0.75
IPs:
IP: 10.244.0.75
Controlled By: ReplicaSet/example-app-main
Containers:
example-app-container:
Container ID: docker://bede3ad52bc2d54d343bd0c8ec36ad39854b65e97522f9e0153b6d33f18d05bf
Image: richarvey/nginx-php-fpm:1.10.3
Image ID: docker-pullable://richarvey/[email protected]:140e92581255ce5e19d144b883560fa891a632fedaf68910ba4b65550d5b12a5
Port: 80/TCP
Host Port: 0/TCP
State: Running
Started: Wed, 16 Sep 2020 11:16:10 +0200
Ready: True
Restart Count: 0
Environment:
SSH_KEY: secret
GIT_REPO: login-details:project-name/source.git
GIT_EMAIL: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
GIT_NAME: user
Mounts:
/varun/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount from default-token-bphcm (ro)
Conditions:
Type Status
Initialized True
Ready True
ContainersReady True
PodScheduled True
Volumes:
default-token-bphcm:
Type: Secret (a volume populated by a Secret)
SecretName: default-token-bphcm
Optional: false
QoS Class: BestEffort
Node-Selectors:
Tolerations: node.kubernetes.io/not-ready:NoExecute op=Exists for 300s
node.kubernetes.io/unreachable:NoExecute op=Exists for 300s
Events:
Type Reason Age From Message
---- ------ ---- ---- -------
Normal Scheduled 21m default-scheduler Successfully assigned example/example-app-main-g9tzn to cluster-3gkmj
Normal Pulling 21m kubelet, cluster-3gkmj Pulling image "richarvey/nginx-php-fpm:1.10.3"
Normal Pulled 21m kubelet, cluster-3gkmj Successfully pulled image "richarvey/nginx-php-fpm:1.10.3"
Normal Created 21m kubelet, cluster-3gkmj Created container example-app-container
Normal Started 21m kubelet, cluster-3gkmj Started container example-app-container


----------


When I do:

kubectl describe deployment traefik -n routing

Name: traefik
Namespace: routing
CreationTimestamp: Sun, 13 Sep 2020 18:14:53 +0200
Labels: app.kubernetes.io/instance=traefik
app.kubernetes.io/managed-by=Helm
app.kubernetes.io/name=traefik
helm.sh/chart=traefik-9.1.1
Annotations: deployment.kubernetes.io/revision: 1
meta.helm.sh/release-name: traefik
meta.helm.sh/release-namespace: routing
Selector: app.kubernetes.io/instance=traefik,app.kubernetes.io/name=traefik
Replicas: 1 desired 1 updated 1 total 1 available 0 unavailable
StrategyType: RollingUpdate
MinReadySeconds: 0
RollingUpdateStrategy: 1 max unavailable, 1 max surge
Pod Template:
Labels: app.kubernetes.io/instance=traefik
app.kubernetes.io/managed-by=Helm
app.kubernetes.io/name=traefik
helm.sh/chart=traefik-9.1.1
Service Account: traefik
Containers:
traefik:
Image: traefik:2.2.8
Ports: 9000/TCP, 8000/TCP, 8443/TCP
Host Ports: 0/TCP, 0/TCP, 0/TCP
Args:
--global.checknewversion
--global.sendanonymoususage
--entryPoints.traefik.address=:9000/tcp
--entryPoints.web.address=:8000/tcp
--entryPoints.websecure.address=:8443/tcp
--api.dashboard=true
--ping=true
--providers.kubernetescrd
--providers.kubernetesingress
--accesslog=true
--accesslog.fields.defaultmode=keep
--accesslog.fields.headers.defaultmode=drop
Liveness: http-get http://:9000/ping delay=10s timeout=2s period=10s #success=1 #failure=3
Readiness: http-get http://:9000/ping delay=10s timeout=2s period=10s #success=1 #failure=1
Environment:
Mounts:
/data from data (rw)
/tmp from tmp (rw)
Volumes:
data:
Type: EmptyDir (a temporary directory that shares a pod's lifetime)
Medium:
SizeLimit:
tmp:
Type: EmptyDir (a temporary directory that shares a pod's lifetime)
Medium:
SizeLimit:
Conditions:
Type Status Reason
---- ------ ------
Available True MinimumReplicasAvailable
Progressing True NewReplicaSetAvailable
OldReplicaSets:
NewReplicaSet: traefik-7bfff8d8f6 (1/1 replicas created)
Events:


----------


I am trying to figure out what is going wrong, so any help would be great!

Here is my file structure for my php app:

example
- example-ingress-route.yml
- example-app.yml
- example-issuer.yml
- example-service.yml
- example-solver.yml


----------


Content of:
example-ingress-route.yml

apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1
kind: IngressRoute
metadata:
namespace: example
name: example-ingress-route
annotations:
kubernetes.io/ingress.class: "traefik"
cert-manager.io/cluster-issuer: example-issuer
traefik.ingress.kubernetes.io/router.entrypoints: web, websecure
traefik.frontend.redirect.entryPoint: https
spec:
entryPoints:
- web
- websecure
routes:
- match: Host(\example.com`)`
kind: Rule
services:
- name: example-app
namespace: example
port: 443
tls:
hosts:
- example.com
options:
namespace: example
secretName: domain-com-tls


----------


Content of:
example-app.yml

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: ReplicaSet
metadata:
namespace: example
name: 'example-app-main'
labels:
app: 'example-app'
tier: 'frontend'
spec:
replicas: 1
selector:
matchLabels:
app: 'example-app'
template:
metadata:
labels:
app: 'example-app'
spec:
containers:
- name: example-app-container
image: richarvey/nginx-php-fpm:1.10.3
imagePullPolicy: Always
env:
- name: SSH_KEY
value: ‘hidden’
- name: GIT_REPO
value: '[email protected]:project//source.git'
- name: GIT_EMAIL
value: ‘hidden’
- name: GIT_NAME
value: ‘hidden’
ports:
- containerPort: 80


----------


Content of:
example-issuer.yml

apiVersion: cert-manager.io/v1
kind: Issuer
metadata:
name: example-issuer
namespace: example
spec:
acme:
# The ACME server URL
server: https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory
# Email address used for ACME registration
email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
# Name of a secret used to store the ACME account private key
privateKeySecretRef:
name: domain-com-tls
# Enable the HTTP-01 challenge provider
solvers:
# An empty 'selector' means that this solver matches all domains
- http01:
ingress:
class: traefik


----------


Content of:
example-service.yml

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
namespace: example
name: 'example-app'
spec:
type: ClusterIP
ports:
- protocol: TCP
name: http
port: 80
targetPort: 80
- protocol: TCP
name: https
port: 443
targetPort: 443
selector:
app: 'example-app'

----------


Content of:
example-solver.yml

apiVersion: cert-manager.io/v1
kind: Certificate
metadata:
name: domain-com
namespace: example
spec:
secretName: domain-com-tls
issuerRef:
name: example-issuer
kind: Issuer
commonName: example.com
dnsNames:
- example.com
submitted by Previous_Soil3 to kubernetes [link] [comments]


2020.09.15 00:56 flyinmacaronimonster The Sooner the Better: Absentee Voting in Oklahoma

**EDIT 1: Here are all the locations where you can drop off your YELLOW STRIPE ballot:
OKLAHOMA COUNTY (Oklahoma City): Oklahoma County Election Board @ 4201 N Lincoln Blvd, Oklahoma City, OK 73105
oklahomacounty.org/388/Election-Board
CANADIAN COUNTY (El Reno): Canadian County Election Board @ 200 S Bickford Ave, El Reno, OK 73036
https://www.canadiancounty.org/930/Election-Board
CLEVELAND COUNTY (Norman): Cleveland County Election Board @ 641 E Robinson St, Suite #200 Norman, OK 73071
https://www.clevelandcountyelectionboard.com/contact_us
LINCOLN COUNTY (Chandler): Lincoln County Election Board @ 811 Manvel Ave (County Courthouse), Suite #15, Chandler, OK 74834
NO WEBSITE
LOGAN COUNTY (Guthrie): Logan County Election Board @ 224 E Vilas Ave, Guthrie, OK 73044
https://www.logancountyok.com/168/Election-Board
McCLAIN COUNTY (Purcell) McClain County Election Board @ 121 N 2nd St (County Courthouse), Suite #101, Purcell, OK 73080
http://mcclain-co-ok.us/contact-information/
POTTAWATOMIE COUNTY (Shawnee): Pottawatomie County Election Board @ 14101 Acme Rd, Shawnee, OK 74804
http://pottawatomiecountyok.com/election-board/
**EDIT 2: FOR ANYBODY WITHOUT A PHOTOCOPIER, you can always just send in your Voter Identification Card (non-photo ID card that comes with your voter registration), or, if you have lost it you can have one mailed to you by your County Election Board, then mail it back with your ballot. If you send it in with your ballot, you can always just have another one mailed to you after the election if you think you will need it again in the future.
Here is a tweet from a reporter from KOCO 5 News OKC to back up this claim. https://twitter.com/KOCODillon/status/1274767229964427270
Example image of Voter Identification Card in question: https://www.cairoklahoma.com/blog/how-to-vote-in-oklahoma/
**
Hey Oklahomans. For anybody who is registered to vote, who has requested an absentee ballot by mail, ballots are starting to go out today - as of the 14th - which is a lot sooner than I expected (pardon the pun).
If you have not registered to vote yet, please do so now. Voter registration ends on Friday, October 9. Please note that online registration is not available as of yet. The Chesapeake Energy Arena is being used as a voter registration center every SATURDAY between now and October 3 (not available any other day) during the hours of 10am-1pm.
https://www.ok.gov/elections/Voter_Info/Register_to_Vote/index.html https://www.nba.com/thundecorporate-news/vote-200901
Before I go any further, it is important to note that, whichever way you vote, you WILL need a valid form of voter ID, even if you vote by mail. Your ID must also be CURRENT as of November 3, 2020, which is the day of the election (expired no earlier than Wednesday, November 4). IF YOU NEED TO UPDATE YOUR DRIVER'S LICENSE, OR ANOTHER FORM OF VALID ID, DO SO RIGHT NOW, AND DO NOT WAIT.
As a note: IF YOU DO NOT HAVE A VALID PHOTO ID, you can also use the non-photo "Voter Identification Card" that you get after you register to vote . If you do not have your Voter Identification Card on hand, or cannot locate it, and you do not have another valid form of ID – like a driver's license – contact your County Election Board and you can have one mailed to you.
https://www.ok.gov/elections/Voter_Info/Proof_of_Identity/index.htmlhttps://www.voteriders.org/ufaqs/oklahoma-voter-id-information/ [voter ID] • https://www.cairoklahoma.com/blog/how-to-vote-in-oklahoma/ [non-photo "Voter Identification Card" example]
I just want to say that Oklahoma's absentee ballot procedures are rather complex. If you want to simplify your voting experience, you can vote early and in-person on either Thursday, October 29, Friday, October 30, or Saturday, October 31 at your County Election Board, or vote in-person on Election Day. Oklahoma's early voting is the shortest period of early voting amongst all states that have early voting, so you may just be better off voting at your local precinct on Election Day if you do not have time on any one of those aforementioned dates. Make sure you have your valid voter ID on hand.
IF YOU ARE PLANNING ON VOTING IN PERSON YOU CAN STOP READING RIGHT HERE.
In terms of absentee ballots, if you want one mailed to you, feel free to request one. While ballots are starting to go out today, please be patient if you have already requested a ballot and have not received it yet, as your ballot may take a few days to arrive.
If you have requested an absentee ballot, it is important to note that, while Oklahoma's absentee ballot may seem complex, it is still relatively straightforward enough if you know what to look for. To break it down there are, in fact, two types of absentee ballots: the "yellow stripe" ballot and the "pink stripe" ballot. The "stripe" in question refers to the color of the stripe on the affidavit envelope.
Here's an example image: https://tulsaworld.com/absentee-ballot-requests-skyrocket-for-june-30-primary-election/article_fc6cf290-7ccf-560b-8e39-34f4afafca6d.html
To summarize, the "yellow-stripe" absentee ballot is the one that is the "standard" absentee ballot. So, if you have a general fear, but are not at particularly high-risk for COVID-19, you would check off "I am none of the above, but wish to vote by absentee ballot" on item #4 on the application, and you would get a standard "yellow-stripe" absentee ballot.
If you are at higher-than-normal risk factor for COVID-19, including voters who are of old age, or you are caregiving for those in this category, you would choose "I am physically incapacitated or a caregiver to someone who is, and cannot vote in person" on item #4. The criteria have been adjusted in light of COVID-19.
https://www.ok.gov/elections/Voter_Info/Covid-19_Criteria_For_PI.html
Whatever color striped ballot you receive, you will need to READ THE INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY, fill out your ballot, and SIGN YOUR SIGNATURE IN THE CORRECT PLACES, INCLUDING ON THE AFFIDAVIT ENVELOPE.
The rules have changed regarding validation of your ballot this year. If you have a standard "yellow stripe" ballot you will need either a copy of a valid voter ID, OR you will need to have it notarized (ONE OR THE OTHER).
IT IS NOT RECOMMENDED THAT YOU HAVE YOUR BALLOT NOTARIZED AS OKLAHOMA GENERALLY HAS A LIMIT OF (20) NOTARIZATIONS PER NOTARY, PER ELECTION, STATEWIDE. If you have a "pink stripe" absentee ballot, you can either provide a copy of a valid voter ID or have two witnesses sign the affidavit envelope (ONE OR THE OTHER). (NO NOTARY FOR PINK STRIPE ABSENTEE BALLOTS).
If you do not have a copier, you can always go to your local library, or have it done at a copy and print shop, including big box stores like Staples, or use a friend or neighbours copier if they allow it. Once you have completed your "yellow stripe" absentee ballot, hand-deliver your ballot to the County Election Board during normal business hours. Keep in mind that YOU, AND ONLY YOU can hand deliver your own ballot in person. So nobody – not even a close relative – can hand-deliver your own ballot. It is highly recommended that you hand-deliver your ballot to the County Elections Board if you have a yellow stripe ballot. Ballots must be returned by end of business day the day BEFORE Election Day (Monday, November 2), though try to hand-deliver it as soon as possible. When you are dropping off your ballot, make sure you have your voter ID on hand as you will have to show ID when dropping off your ballot.
NOTE: YOU CANNOT DROP OFF YOUR YELLOW STRIPE BALLOT AT ANY POLLING LOCATION.
If you have a "pink stripe" absentee ballot, YOU MUST MAIL IT BACK AS, UNLIKE THE YELLOW STRIPE BALLOT, YOU CANNOT HAND-DELIVER A PINK STRIPE BALLOT TO YOUR COUNTY ELECTION BOARD. You can also use a private courier like UPS or FedEx as long as delivery documentation is provided. If you have a pink-stripe ballot make sure to mail it back as soon as possible. IF YOU HAVE A YELLOW STRIPE BALLOT, try your best to hand-deliver your ballot so that the mail stream can be cleared up for those that need to mail it back. Keep in mind that any ballot that is mailed back (either pink or yellow) must be received by your County Election Board by 7:00pm on Election Day.
This all seems complex but at the end of the day, as long as you know what you are doing you should be OK; and of course, if you do not want to go through the process you can always vote in person. I have provided a link to a video tutorial for each type of ballot.
LINKS TO SOURCES
https://www.ok.gov/elections/Voter_Info/Register_to_Vote/index.html
https://www.nba.com/thundecorporate-news/vote-200901
https://www.ok.gov/elections/Voter_Info/Absentee_Voting/
https://www.ok.gov/elections/Voter_Info/Absentee_Voter_Verification.html
https://www.ok.gov/elections/Voter_Info/FAQ_For_Notaries_Public.html
https://www.ok.gov/elections/Voter_Info/Covid-19_Criteria_For_PI.html
https://www.ok.gov/elections/Election_Info/2020_Election_Calendar.html
https://www.ok.gov/elections/Voter_Info/Proof_of_Identity/index.html
https://www.voteriders.org/ufaqs/oklahoma-voter-id-information/ [voter ID]
https://www.cairoklahoma.com/blog/how-to-vote-in-oklahoma/ [non-photo voter identification card example]
https://www.ok.gov/elections/Media/Videos/index.html [absentee ballot tutorial]
https://www.ok.gov/elections/documents/OK_Absentee_Ballot_Application.pdf
submitted by flyinmacaronimonster to okc [link] [comments]


2020.09.09 18:42 DramaticPatience0 [HIRING] 40 Jobs in NM Hiring Now!

Company Name Title City
La Clinica De Familiad La Clinica De Familiad: Dentist Acme
CompHealth CompHealth: Physician: S. Central New Mexico Needs A Pediatrician, Ski In Am, Golf In Pm Job-2638228 Alamogordo
The Home Depot The Home Depot: Lot Associate Albuquerque
Sleep Number Sleep Number: Home Delivery Driver Albuquerque
CompHealth CompHealth: Physician: Physician Job In Albuquerque, New Mexico With 4-Day Workweek Job-2638925 Albuquerque
Genesis Rehab Services Genesis Rehab Services: Physical Therapist (Pt) Albuquerque
The Home Depot The Home Depot: Customer Service/Sales Albuquerque
United Parcel Service United Parcel Service: Warehouse Worker - Package Handler Albuquerque
Nomad Health Nomad Health: Emergency Room Travel Nurse Rn - $88/Hour Albuquerque
Great Clips Great Clips: Hair Stylist - Montgomery Plaza Albuquerque
CompHealth CompHealth: Physician: Emergency General Surgeon Opportunity In Albuquerque, New Mexico Job-2642139 Albuquerque
Grant Trucking Grant Trucking: Class A Cdl - Truck Drivers Albuquerque
Nomad Health Nomad Health: Telemetry Travel Nurse Rn - $51/Hour Albuquerque
Albuquerque Heights Healthcare and Rehab - Genesis HealthCare Albuquerque Heights Healthcare and Rehab - Genesis HealthCare: Certified Nursing Assistant (Full Time) Albuquerque
BetterHelp BetterHelp: Licensed Mental Health Therapist Albuquerque
Great Clips Great Clips: Hair Stylist - Towne Park Plaza Albuquerque
Nomad Health Nomad Health: Medical-Surgical Travel Nurse Rn - $53/Hour Albuquerque
Great Clips Great Clips: Hair Stylist - North Towne Plaza Albuquerque
The Home Depot The Home Depot: Customer Service/Sales Algodones
United Parcel Service United Parcel Service: Warehouse Worker - Package Handler Algodones
Genesis Rehab Services Genesis Rehab Services: Physical Therapist (Pt) Arenas Valley
Genesis Rehab Services Genesis Rehab Services: Speech Therapist-Clinical Fellow Arenas Valley
ProCare Therapy ProCare Therapy: Schools - Speech Language Pathologist Bent
United Parcel Service United Parcel Service: Warehouse Worker - Package Handler Bernalillo
ProCare Therapy ProCare Therapy: Schools - Speech Language Pathologist Boles Acres
ProCare Therapy ProCare Therapy: Schools - Speech Language Pathologist Carlsbad
Ruan Ruan: Dispatch Coordinator Clovis
Aflac Regional Office Aflac Regional Office: Insurance Representative - Albuquerque, Nm Corrales
CoreCivic CoreCivic: Mental Health Counselor / Clinician Estancia
CoreCivic CoreCivic: Detention Officer Estancia
CoreCivic Torrance County Detention Facility CoreCivic Torrance County Detention Facility: Shift Supervisor Estancia
Grant Trucking Grant Trucking: Class A Cdl - Truck Drivers Farmington
Regis Corporation Regis Corporation: Stylist Farmington
Jacobs Technology Jacobs Technology: Air Conditioning (A/C) Technician Las Cruces
General Dynamics Information Technology Customer Service Representative - 9/14 Start Date Las Cruces
Central Oregon Truck Company Class A Flatbed Company Driver Job Las Cruces
General Dynamics Information Technology General Dynamics Information Technology: Customer Service Representative - 9/14 Start Date Las Cruces
BetterHelp BetterHelp: Licensed Clinical Social Workers ( Lcsw ) – Remote Online Counseling Las Cruces
Navy Aviation Rescue Swimmer Las Cruces
Army National Guard Fire Support Specialist (13F) Las Cruces
Hey guys, here are some recent job openings in nm. Feel free to comment here or send me a private message if you have any questions, I'm at the community's disposal! If you encounter any problems with any of these job openings please let me know that I will modify the table accordingly. Thanks!
submitted by DramaticPatience0 to NewMexicoJobs [link] [comments]


2020.09.05 12:37 kahninah What's happening in September 2020

Holidays/Festivals
DATE HOLIDAY/FESTIVAL
2 Sep - 16 Sep Hungry Ghost Festival
5 Sep - 13 Sep September School Holidays
Ongoing Events
DATE TIME CATEGORY EVENT VENUE PRICE
1 Aug - 31 Oct NA Local Tourism Free 1 Year Gallery Insider Membership National Gallery Singapore Free. Redeem here
5 Aug - 30 Sep NA Art Performance A staged reading of If These Wheels Could Speak… Online Free. Watch here.
9 Aug - 20 Sep NA Art Performance Life in a Cloud Online Free. Watch here.
11 Aug - 11 Sep NA Art Performance Between 5 Cows and the Deep Blue Sea (Dramatised Reading) Online Free. Watch here.
12 Aug - 30 Sep NA Art Performance A staged reading of The Other People Online Free. Watch here
15 Aug - 15 Nov Various Timings Art Performance (Vodcast) Digital Traces: The Year of No Return Online Free. Watch here
25 Aug - 25 Sep NA Art Performance Shakuntala (Dramatised Reading) Online Free. Watch here
4 Sep -11 Oct Various Timings Movie Screening Singular Screens Oldham Theatre $12 Book tickets here
4 Sep - 13 Sep 10am - 1pm. 2pm - 5pm. Last entry at 4.15pm Exhibition Living Worlds: An Animal Planet Experience Science Centre Singapore $16 / adult, $12 / child. Book your tickets here
4 Sep - 21 Feb 2021 Museum Hours Art Exhibition An Exercise of Meaning in a Glitch Season National Gallery Singapore Free
5 Sep - 20 Sep NA Festival Indian Heritage Centre Culture Festival Online Free. Sign up here
6 Sep - 6 Oct 8pm Concert Red Dot Baroque: Bach Beats Corona Online Pay-as-you-wish from $5. Book tickets here
Until 30 Sep 10am - 11pm Local Tourism Free Entry to Canopy Park. Canopy Park, Jewel Changi Airport Present any same-day receipt from Jewel. No minimum spend.
Valid till 31 Mar 2021 NA Local Tourism Free Sentosa Fun Passes Selected attractions on Sentosa Free. Redeem here
Upcoming Events
DATE TIME CATEGORY EVENT VENUE PRICE
5 Sep - 13 Sep NA Festival THIS Buddhist Film Festival 2020: Online Edition Online Ticketed event. Book tickets here
5 Sep - 27 Sep 10am - 4pm Local Tourism Gai Gai Tour – One Faber Group Faber Peak Child - $15. Adult - $20. Register here.
6 Sep - 27 Sep NA Virtual Marathon (Fundraising) Ground Zero Run Challenge NA 25km -$30. 5km -$25. 1km- $10. Register here.
7 Sep - 11 Sep Every hour from (10am - 7pm) Movie Screening ArtScience on Screen: Hoverboard and Litterbugs Art Science Museum. Rainbow Room, Basement 2 Free. Book your tickets here
7 Sep -15 Sep To be Announced. Post-movie Review: 4.30pm-5pm Movie Screening How to Let Go of the World Online Screening Ticketed Event. Click here.
11 Sep - 11 Oct NA Art Perfomance Dance India Showcase 2020: Natya Lahari Online Screening Free. Watch here
11, 12 Sep 8pm Concert Essence of SCO SCO Concert Hall Free. Sign up here
11, 14, 15, 16 Sep 9.30am - 1pm. 2pm-5.30pm Volunteering Packing of Self-Care Packs for Beyond The Label Festival National Council Of Social Service NA. More details here
12 Sep – 28 Mar 2021 10am - 7pm Exhibition Planet or Plastic? Art Science Museum. Singapore Residents: Adult: $16, Concession: $12
12 Sep 8pm Concert Intimate Moments 乐享时光: Zhang Si Jing and Friends Online Pay-as-you-wish from $5. Book tickets here
12 Sep 1pm - 5pm Local Tourism Obin Ubin's Virtual Event Online via Zoom. Free. Sign up here
12 Sep - 13 Sep Various Timings Festival Swap4Earth Eco Conscious Festival Online 90% of activities free (as advertised). Sign up here
13 Sep - 20 Sep NA Virtual Walkathon #HOWRU Virtual Walkathon NA Free. Sign up here
14 Sep - 11 Oct NA Festival Wan Qing Mid-Autumn Festival 2020 (Digital Edition) Online Free. Programme list here
16 Sep 5pm - 6pm Seminar Digital Transformation in ASEAN – Leaving No One Behind Online via Zoom. Free. Sign up here
16 Sep 9pm Art Perfomance ArtScience Late at Home wwith David Finnigan Online via Youtube. Free. Watch here
18 Sep 8pm Concert Nocturne Online $15. Book tickets here
18 Sep - 25 Sep From 6pm Workshop Series Happy Hour at ACM Online Free. Sign up here
18 Sep - 4 Oct 7pm - 10pm Ceremony Mid-Autumn Festival 2020 Light-up Outdoor Gardens, Gardens by the Bay Free
23 Sep 5pm - 6.30pm Seminar Will the US Dollar Continue to be the Dominant Reserve Currency? Online via Zoom. Free. Sign up here
24 Sep 12pm Movie Screening Tang Xianzu: Rebirthing Of A 400 Years Old Dream Online Free. Watch here
25 Sep - 27 Sep 7pm Festival Startup Weekend Singapore 2020: TOMORROW Online Free. Register here
25 Sep - 31 Oct NA Festival Singapore Archifest 2020 Online Varies.
26 Sep - 27 Sep 9am onwards Festival Beyond the Label Festival 2020 Online $10 donation for each activity. Sign up here
26 Sep - 10 Oct 8pm Concert Kahchun Wong conducts Debussy, Wagner & Shostakovich Online Pay-as-you-wish from $10.
30 Sep NA. Livestream Q&A at 8pm Movie Screening ArtScience on Screen: Sonorous Sketches: Visualising a Field Recording Dubplate Online Free
This page is best viewed in a desktop browser.
submitted by kahninah to singapore [link] [comments]


2020.09.04 23:23 globalwp [CONFLICT] Avenging Al-Quds: Operation HOTAMAH

mood
“The UAR shall not stand idly as the Zionist entity slaughters our people, destroys our sacred sites, and tramples upon our honor. The UAR has launched a strike on the Zionist menace to punish them for desacrating the sanctity of the holy city. Jerusalem is to be free and open to people of all faiths. We can no longer tolerate fascism in the region. The last vestige of colonialism in the Middle East shall soon be eradicated. Let it be known that the UAR will fight for what is right, and we will do what we must to liberate Palestine once and for all. Israel will immediately withdraw from the occupied territories, and the lands will be restored to their rightful owners. Be warned, for our use of nuclear weapons was limited, and intended to reduce the blood shed by this war. We do not aim to eradicate the Jewish people, who are innocent bystanders born into fascist rule, but we seek to eradicate the power structures which have led to the oppression and subjugation of an entire nation, culminating in a direct attack and insult on both Arabs and Muslims across the world. Should we not act quickly, St. James’s Cathedral, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre would be next. Be warned, we will no longer tolerate such behaviour, and while we do not wish to harm civilians, we warn Israel that any nuclear retaliation would be grounds for a ten-fold response. The Falcon has awakened, and now soars with the Phoenix.” - Prime Minister Al-Zaidi, hours after the initial attack
The UAR, already in a state of high alert, and already mobilized due to the previous Iranian war, can afford to quickly mobilize its troops and move forward, providing it with a decisive advantage over its Israeli counterparts. The “military exercise” was but a ruse, and the UAR now seeks to liberate Palestine and establish a one-state binational solution by force, ending the Israeli occupation of lands stolen almost 90 years ago.
The destruction of Al-Aqsa and the planned “temple” has galvanized public opinion to a point where most muslims would consider joining the fight against Israel. It will thus be easy to recruit additional auxiliary units both from Palestine and from the Islamic world as a whole. As plans enacted by Jordan, Egypt, Turkey, and the UAR, come to fruition, one statement is becoming a reality, Jerusalem will be freed!

Opening Phase - Operation Hotamah

Woe to every backbiter, slanderer,
Who amasses wealth and counts it over and over.
He imagines that his wealth will make him immortal.
Nay! he shall surely be cast into the "hotamah".
And what should make thee know what the "hotamah" is?
Allah's fire as preserved fuel,
Which will leap suddenly on to the hearts.
It is locked up in outstretched pillars to be used against them. 1 - Quran 104-2
The Land-Based Missiles
With troops deployed in Jordan, and on the Zionist-UAR border, the UAR is poised to make a surprise first strike on the enemy’s most prized possession. Their nuclear weapons.
Israeli nuclear weapons are located mainly in one site, warehouses near Sdot Micha. While they may be potentially rated against conventional airstrikes, they would be unable to withstand a direct hit from a nuclear weapon, let alone a ground penetrating nuclear bunker buster. Israel’s other nuclear weapons are located on submarines that would presumably be located thanks to the UAR’s established hydrophone network in Lebanon.. Thus the main objective would be to overwhelm the enemy’s air defenses.
This will involve 5 different sources and directions forcing them to defend territory in 360 degrees in addition to a suter attack by EC-130 ELINT to paint the false picture of a clear sky prior to the attack:
Between the 75,000 rockets (including precision munitions), Hamas’s missiles, 1,500 cruise missiles, 2,000 ballistic missiles, and 200 JASSMs, it is highly unlikely that the Israelis will manage to intercept specifically the 5 INTIQAM-2TAAs that would be dropped on the area. A few cruise missiles alone are hard to intercept if taken by surprise, let alone thousands. The fireball would likely vaporize the neighbouring moshav of Sdot Micha, as well as Sdot Micha Airbase. The largest settlement that would be affected by the detonation would be Bet Shemesh which would suffer from the shockwave. The Negev Nuclear Research Centre in Dimona would similarly be targeted as well. This would effectively render Israel nuke-less and unable to retaliate.
Objective:
The Sub Hunt
The UAR Hydrophone network should reveal the locations of the submarines in Israel’s control. The UAR will deploy its fleet of ASW aircraft and ships to hunt the subs that are located to prevent them from firing. This will occur simultaneously with the attack to bring the UAR’s sub hunters within range to destroy the Israeli submarines within minutes of the initial salvo firing, faster than the time it takes for the news of a nuclear strike to travel to the 5 isolated subs.
Knowing vaguely where they are, ASW helicopters can be used to pinpoint their direct locations and thus allow them to be neutralized by torpedo fired either by helicopter, submarine, or surface the Sea Hunter Autonomous ASW ship designed specifically for this purpose. The limited range of fire of the enemy’s cruise missile systems used for nuclear weapons delivery dramatically reduce the search range. The following units will be deployed for this purpose:
Sub Hunter Group 1:
3 Arleigh Burke Flight II Destroyer 3 Ticonderoga Class Cruisers 2 Sea Hunter Autonomous ASW Ship 1 Sea Fighter LCS 5 Silorsky ASW Helicopter 1 Los Angeles Class Submarine
Sub Hunter Group 2: (First searches Tiran, then moves back to the Med.)
3 Arleigh Burke Flight II Destroyer 3 Ticonderoga Class Cruisers 2 Sea Hunter Autonomous ASW Ship 1 Sea Fighter LCS 5 Silorsky ASW Helicopter
Sub Hunter Group 3:
3 Arleigh Burke Flight II Destroyer 3 Ticonderoga Class Cruisers 2 Sea Hunter Autonomous ASW Ship 1 Giuseppe Garibaldi-class ASW Carrier 15 AS332 Super Puma ASW Helicopter
Sub Hunter Group 4:
3 Arleigh Burke Flight II Destroyer 3 Ticonderoga Class Cruisers 2 Sea Hunter Autonomous ASW Ship 1 Independence Class LCS 5 Silorsky ASW Helicopter
Sub Hunter Group 5:
3 Arleigh Burke Flight II Destroyer 3 Ticonderoga Class Cruisers 2 Sea Hunter Autonomous ASW Ship 1 Independence Class LCS 5 Silorsky ASW Helicopter
An additional 25 Sayeh Naval Drone (clone of ScanEagle), with ranges of up to 100 km, will be launched to help in the detection of enemy submarines.
Objective:

Hotamah Phase II

After the nuclear strike which would end Israel’s nuclear arsenal, which would last in the order of minutes, followup strikes would be ordered on their airbases as a horde of UAR Aircraft begin dropping JASSM and SEAD munitions on Israeli air defense in the area, targeting aircraft believed to be nuclear capable while still on the ground.
With UAR Air Defenses featuring quantum radar technologies obtained from China, and the UAR’s newest aircraft featuring advanced stealth suites and EW, it is hoped that the enemy’s air defenses would be promptly suppressed and enemy aircraft that do manage to take off shot down. Operating the Arrow 3 as an ABM, the David’s Sling as an air defense system, and the iron dome as an anti-rocket system, the Israelis have a decent air defense system… for the 2010s.
Extensive use will be made of EW aircraft to scramble enemy defenses during the attack, as well as simply strength in numbers as the Israelis cannot hope to intercept the large barrage of missiles fired from Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Gaza, the air, and the Mediterranean sea at the same time 5 F-16CJ ELINT will be used for this purpose in addition to the 2 EC-130 ELINT aircraft mentioned earlier.
The UAR will also fire 20 conventional Mudafi’ missiles, designed to counter the Arrow III, the schematics for which were generously provided by our allies in Laurentia. Combined with further tomahawk strikes on airbases and air defenses, as well as mass JASSM strikes and artillery barrages where applicable, the airbases and the air defenses presumably deployed at the [following sites]()https://i.imgur.com/zJqN5y5.png will be destroyed, hopefully with much of the IAF as well. Emphasis will be placed on the early destruction of Nevatim Air base due to the presence of F-35s in that airbase.
The UAR has deployed a total of 180 5th generation aircraft, aircraft that are more advanced than the F-35 which defeated the F-15 with 20:1 odds. With experience in Iran, the UAR’s capable fighters will attempt to destroy much of the Israeli Air Force while they're still on the ground following the first wave of coordinated SEAD strikes on enemy air defense systems.
Israeli air bases will also be hit by a further salvo of 100 Tomahawk missiles each while the SEAD strikes are ongoing. Continued suppressive fire from Hezbollah and Hamas missiles will further augment the chances of the more sophisticated missiles hitting their mark.
Fortifications in the Golan Heights as well as Lebanon and the West Bank of the Jordan river will be struck in subsequent strikes and neutralized.
Aircraft deployed:
Once Phase 1 is complete and the Israeli air defense network is suppressed, the 580 aircraft deployed will assist with CAS operations and will bomb enemy supply lines.
The above aircraft will be supported by the Turkish deployment of F-16s that would perform similar strike operations, as well as friendly B-21 bombers from friendly Laurentian bases.
Objective:
Ground Operations
Map
Northern Deployment (250,000 men)
Amount Item Type
350 Engesa EE-50 Tanks
150 Altay Tanks
150 T-26 Tanks
250 M1A2S Tanks
100 T-90 Tanks
1100 M113 APC
300 LAV 6 APC
125 Tuwaiq-2 APC
250 Al-Shbil APC
75 Sarrir APC
200 Fahd APC APC
2050 APCs
150 S.A.U.D Vehicle Drone Vehicle
25 Type 08 IFV IFV
100 M2A2 IFV
25 AMX-10P IFV
300 IFVs
1500 Al-Masmak MRAP
500 Toofan MRAP
250 Oshkosk M-ATV MRAP
25 Digori Medevac Medevac
2275 MRAPs
245 Raad self Propelled Artillery (with basir laser guidance) SPA
150 M109 SPA
2 Chinese Artillery Battery SPA
8 Jobaria MLRS
42 PHZ-89 MLRS MLRS
447 Artillery/MLRS
20 Denel Rooivalk Attack Helicopter
8 Denel Rooivalk (SAUD) Attack Helicopter
40 AH-64 Apache Attack Helicopter
15 Aérospatiale Gazelle utility / scout
15 Boeing CH-47F Chinook Utility
20 Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk Utility
20 Bell 212 Utility
5 Aérospatiale Gazelle scout / anti-armor
347 Heydar 1 Autonomous Swarm Robot
50 Nazir UGV
150 CAIG Wing Loong UCAV
15 Ababil UCAV
2 Ramah-II Air Defense System
10 LPD-1 Laser Point Defense System
15,000 Misc Trucks Supply Trucks
The UAR currently operates several satellites such as the Yaogan series which can be used to determine the bulk of Israel’s positions and bases prior to the attack.
In the initial attack, the Jobaria MLRS systems will provide firepower to demolish much of Israel’s fortifications in the Golan heights, feigning an attack from the Syrian side. However, knowing that the Syrian side is the most fortified compared to the Lebanese side, the UAR’s main northern advance will come from Lebanon. The intention is to pin down as many Israeli troops in the Golan Heights as possible while sending troops pouring southwards towards a line established from Haifa to Tiberias. Cutting off the bulk of the Israeli troops that would eventually run out of supply, the offensive would hopefully see the Golan and much of the Galilee fall to the UAR.
In the Golan Heights, extensive use of Nazir UGVs and Heydar Autonomous Swarm Vehicles will be used to combat minefields. Controlled from a distance, and with support from drones, the vehicles would be able to clear minefields with a minimal loss of life. The Jobaria strike, each of which fires 240 missiles per salvo, will assist in the destruction of minefields and defenses in the area. One Jobaria is said to cover an area of 4 km2, 8 would cover far more. The Golan contingent will represent 2/5ths of the total force, with 3/5ths being deployed to Lebanon. The UNFIL will kindly be asked to leave/step aside.
The Arabs in this section, which make up 53% of the population, will be encouraged to rise up, and Arab localities will be given small arms via airdrop. Seeing as they are actively discriminated against, and saw their holy sites destroyed, they would be more than willing to assist the UAR in liberating their homeland. Of the 700,000 Arabs in the territory, it is expected that some 70,000 would assist. They will be used to police the area and maintain the occupations of villages and towns liberated by UAR forces. This includes the Golan heights where a large number of Israeli troops would be stationed.
UAR forces boast a multitude of drones, partially deployed by S.A.U.D drone vehicles (ie a successful version of the Dakotan slaughterbot project) which release swarms that can be used to provide full battlefield awareness to soldiers via their personal helmet augmented reality HUDs. This would drastically reduce the cost of urban warfare and when combined with the larger UCAVs and UAVs flying overhead, helps integrate air, land, and sea combined firepower.
Extensive use of the UAR’s superior artillery and aerial intelligence will be used to target armored columns and harass enemy supply lines, ensuring that the UAR is well supplied in comparison to the Israelis. Close air support from helicopters as well as support air strikes from the aircraft deployed to the skies will help speed up the advance.
Furthermore, the UAR’s experience in urban warfare, owing to its abilities in the Syrian, Lebanese, Saudi, and Iranian wars will provide its professional army with an edge over the conscription based Israeli army who’s dated combat experience is largely based on waving guns at unarmed protestors and Palestinian children.
Objectives:
Southern Deployment (250,000 men)
Amount Item Type
350 Engesa EE-50 Tanks
150 Altay Tanks
150 T-26 Tanks
250 M1A2S Tanks
100 T-90 Tanks
1100 M113 APC
300 LAV 6 APC
125 Tuwaiq-2 APC
250 Al-Shbil APC
75 Sarrir APC
200 Fahd APC APC
2050 APCs
150 S.A.U.D Vehicle Drone Vehicle
25 Type 08 IFV IFV
100 M2A2 IFV
25 AMX-10P IFV
300 IFVs
1500 Al-Masmak MRAP
500 Toofan MRAP
250 Oshkosk M-ATV MRAP
25 Digori Medevac Medevac
245 Raad self Propelled Artillery (with basir laser guidance) SPA
150 M109 SPA
2 Chinese Artillery Battery SPA
8 Jobaria MLRS
42 PHZ-89 MLRS MLRS
80 M88 Armored Recovery vehicle
20 Denel Rooivalk Attack Helicopter
8 Denel Rooivalk (SAUD) Attack Helicopter
40 AH-64 Apache Attack Helicopter
15 Aérospatiale Gazelle utility / scout
5 Aérospatiale Gazelle scout / anti-armor
20 Mil Mi-17 Utility Helicopter
20 Mil Mi-24 Utility Helicopter
347 Heydar 1 Autonomous Swarm Robot
50 Nazir UGV
150 CAIG Wing Loong UCAV
15 Ababil UCAV
2 Ramah-II Air Defense System
10 LPD-1 Laser Point Defense System
15,000 Misc Trucks Supply Trucks
Operating over 50 bridges, and with air cover from Jordanian based air defense systems, the UAR will cross the Jordan River with three main thrusts, north, central, and south, which would be of equal size. This will involve the destruction of Israeli forces on the other side of the river through mass artillery. With what can only be described as the largest artillery barrage in history the entirety of the West Bank of the Jordan that is fortified by Israel will be struck by 471 Artillery units in addition to salvos fired by 50 MLRS systems with salvos of 3600 rounds per strike. This will be supplemented by air strikes from UCAVs and friendly aircraft.
In the north, defined as the West Bank to the Golan Heights, troops will attempt a push forward with similar tactics to that mentioned in the previous section towards Umm Al-Fahm to Nazareth. The pressure put on the Golan front will pin down troops that do not wish to forgo the high ground, as the unexpected large bridge crossing would occur. Once again, urban areas will be dealt with using the UAR’s drone tactics. 2/5ths of the Jordanian force will be deployed here. In the West Bank, the objective in sight is Jerusalem, as troops will attempt to seize much of the West Bank with support from artillery and air units. Liberated Palestinians who would be more than willing to fight will be provided with AKM rifles and shall act as auxiliaries. In the West Bank, with a population of approximately 4 million people (estimate based on 2%), at least 400,000 men would be willing to join. The destruction of the holy sites would see nearly every eligible man join the fight, and as such 400k is extremely conservative and a figure of closer to 2 million would be likely. The West Bank should already be in open revolt given the actions at Al-Aqsa, and as such the advance would be facilitated by Israeli troops being largely bogged down by the fighting . Friendly units in the region will work to sabotage Israeli military positions and supply lines and shall assist the advance, particularly in Jerusalem proper. 2/5ths of the Jordanian force will be deployed here.
Once the troops reach Jerusalem, special care will be taken to prevent the destruction of additional holy sites, and prevent Israel from destroying sensitive Holy sites important to Arabs such as the Church of the Holy Sepulhcre and the St. James Cathedral. Jerusalem’ population, which is 38% Arab despite Israeli ethnic cleansing, will be instrumental to assisting the UAR’s advance.
In the south, along the Negev Desert, troops will establish a land connection to Egypt by Seizing Eilat. The Negev is sparsely populated, and relatively open, allowing large armored units to be targeted from the skies and by missile. Urban combat is similarly less of a concern as the towns are notably smaller, and easier to place under martial law. UAVs and UCAVs will be used extensively to destroy armored columns, as the battle becomes one of range and maneuvering. Friendly Bedouins, Muslims who make up 25% of the Negev’s population, will be used as local auxiliary units, with some 20-30k out of the 400k strong population (estimate based on 1%) willing to assist. With 1/5th of the Jordanian force deployed here, the objective is to push forward and control Highway 40 (Line from Eilat to Beersheeba to the West Bank) by attacking from the east.
Once again, given the range of the UAR’s air defense systems in Jordan, the troops should be reasonably protected against Israeli incursions as the Quantum Radar batteries should be able to easily pick up the few F-35s that may have survived the original blast, and most certainly the F-16s that survived.
Objectives:

Air Defense

The UAR boasts some of the tightest air defense systems in the world, with numerous layers of Radar tested specifically against the type of aircraft Israel is expected to deploy with successful tests. The Quantum radar within the chinese designed, UAR produced HQ-90 ABM and Air Defense System provides the UAR with protection against stealth aircraft and ballistic missile threats within 600 km [Analogous to an upgraded S-500]. The Ramah-II Quantum Systems provide 100 km of coverage [Analogous to an upgraded Patriot] and protection from cruise missiles and stealth aircraft. The LPD-I laser point defense batteries provide laser point defense within 20 km against smaller munitions. Additionally, THAAD, and Patriot batteries have been deployed across the country as well as HQ-19 batteries, integrated with the quantum radar suites elsewhere.
While the UAR already has a vast array of air defense systems deployed, it shall be deploying additional systems to key sites including:
Each site will be protected with 3 HQ-90 Batteries, 2 Patriot Batteries, 2 Ramah-II Batteries, and 1 LPD-1 Batteries. 2 THAAD Batteries will be placed at Medina, Damascus, and Beirut and 1 THAAD Battery will be placed in Baghdad.
This layout ensures that cruise missiles fired from the mediteranean will have ample time to be detected and intercepted by the Ramah-II batteries designed specifically for this purpose, with multiple layers of security should a missile fail to be intercepted. With each HQ-90 battery being able to intercept and track up to 20 missiles at a time within 3 seconds of firing, each deployment should theoretically be able to protect against the entirety of the Israeli nuclear arsenal which is estimated at 80-120 nuclear weapons. With 60 HQ-90 systems deployed, as well as redundancies and overlapping coverage, the UAR should be able to intercept anything that Israel may have been able to save.
The UAR has not forgotten its allies, as it has already deployed 5 HQ-90 Quantum ABM/ADS Batteries, 10 Patriot-3 Batteries in the above cities, 30 LPD-1, and 15 Ramah-II in Amman, Irbid, Ma’an, Ajloun, and Russeifa. Jordan’s location between Israel and much of the UAR means that these systems would intercept missiles headed for the UAR as well. The Egyptian deployment similarly consists of 5 HQ-90 ABM Systems,10 Ramah-II ACM Batteries, and 10 LPD Laser Point Defense Batteries deployed to Alexandria, Asyut, Cairo, Aswan, and Port Said.
To further improve interception chances, 10 KJ-3000 AWAC, 6 Boeing E-3s, and 2 Saab 2000s will be used to provide round the clock airborne warning and control to track potential hostile airborne threats.
Lastly, the Arleigh Burkes currently deployed in the Mediterranean theatre are equipped with an AEGIS SM-2 system that would be capable of intercepting missiles fired from the Mediterranean sea within range. This provides yet another layer of protection from enemy missiles.
Note that the deployment of batteries in Lebanon, Jordan, and Egypt, allow for the UAR’s air coverage to include the entirety of Israel greatly affecting the enemy’s abilities to field aircraft.
Objective:

Naval Deployment

The naval deployment intends to neutralize Israel’s submarine based nuclear arsenal by deploying various “Sub-hunter Groups” that would utilize intelligence about submarine positions in the relatively shallow Mediteranean (compared to the open sea). These groups would neutalize the submarines and then work towards eliminating the Israeli surface fleet, be it in port or in the water. The bulk of the force will be in the mediteranean, with Sub Hunter Group 3 clearing the Straits of Tiran prior to moving back to the Meditereanean.
Sub Hunter Group 1:
3 Arleigh Burke Flight II Destroyer 3 Ticonderoga Class Cruisers 2 Sea Hunter Autonomous ASW Ship 1 Sea Fighter LCS 5 Silorsky ASW Helicopter 1 Los Angeles Class Submarine
Sub Hunter Group 2:
3 Arleigh Burke Flight II Destroyer 3 Ticonderoga Class Cruisers 2 Sea Hunter Autonomous ASW Ship 1 Sea Fighter LCS 5 Silorsky ASW Helicopter
Sub Hunter Group 3:
3 Arleigh Burke Flight II Destroyer 3 Ticonderoga Class Cruisers 2 Sea Hunter Autonomous ASW Ship 1 Giuseppe Garibaldi-class ASW Carrier 15 AS332 Super Puma ASW Helicopter
Sub Hunter Group 4:
3 Arleigh Burke Flight II Destroyer 3 Ticonderoga Class Cruisers 2 Sea Hunter Autonomous ASW Ship 1 Independence Class LCS 5 Silorsky ASW Helicopter
Sub Hunter Group 5:
3 Arleigh Burke Flight II Destroyer 3 Ticonderoga Class Cruisers 2 Sea Hunter Autonomous ASW Ship 1 Independence Class LCS 5 Silorsky ASW Helicopter
An additional “Fleet Destroyer” Group which would destroy the Israeli surface fleet while the other groups hunt for submarines, in port on on the water, the enemy’s ships will be destroyed. This will be made up of:
3 Arleigh Burke Flight II Destroyer 3 Ticonderoga Class Cruisers 2 Medina Class Frigates 3 Badr Class Corvettes
Extensive use of Naval UAVs such as the Sayeh Drone and the Fotros Drone will be used in eliminating the enemy’s naval capabilities. Munition drones, specifically, some 400 LJ-2 drones, will target Israeli warships during naval engagements to increase the odds of a direct hit. Aircraft mentioned in previous sections, once air superiority is achieved, will assist in dropping AshM munitions on the enemy.
Once the enemy’s fleet is destroyed, naval assets will provide shore bombardment support to attack Israeli Army positions.
Objective:
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2020.09.02 15:36 supernova2020 KULR Technology Group and Hazmat Safety Consulting Begin Work to Improve Industry Standards for Commercial Shipments of Batteries

Comes on the heels of KULR’s recent announcement on its participation in meetings with the United Nations Transport of Dangerous Goods Sub-Committee Informal Working Group
SAN DIEGO, Sept. 02, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- KULR Technology Group, Inc. (OTCQB: KULR) (the “Company” or “KULR”) today announced that the Company has commenced work on helping establish updated industry safety standards for lithium battery packaging used to ship batteries commercially. In April 2020, the Company announced a partnership with Hazmat Safety Consulting (“Hazmat”), an organization with over 60 years of combined experience in developing, influencing, and interpreting lithium battery safety regulations for the safe transport of lithium batteries.
This week, KULR is participating in meetings of the United Nations Transport of Dangerous Goods Sub-Committee Informal Working Group to establish test methods and criteria by which lithium batteries can be more effectively regulated based on their inherent hazards. On September 15, 2020, the Company will present to a subcommittee of the Transportation Research Board on the Prevention of Thermal Runaway Propagation in Lithium Batteries. KULR’s passive propagation resistant (PPR) design solutions prevent dangerous cell-to-cell thermal runaway propagation. KULR’s PPR solutions were recently adopted by NASA for use in future space missions.
Lithium battery fires -- such as the incidents that destroyed a UPS plane in 2010 and a FedEx truck in 2016-- have increasingly become a public safety concern. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has called for stricter testing and shipping standards for lithium batteries and submitted safety recommendations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), a division of the Department of Transportation responsible for developing, issuing, and enforcing safety regulations for the transport of hazardous materials, in May 2020.
“Bob Richard, President of Hazmat, who formerly served as the Deputy Associate Administrator for the PHMSA and Chairman of the UN Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, will be instrumental in guiding us through the steps required to implement minimum packaging standards required to ship lithium batteries,” said Michael Mo, CEO of KULR. “Our PPR technologies are world-class solutions for preventing dangerous battery fires, and we share the NTSB’s, concerns about current safety standards. Requiring that lithium batteries be shipped in packaging capable of preventing thermal runaway propagation makes logical sense and should be taken into serious consideration by the PHMSA.”
According to Verified Market Research, the global lithium ion battery market was valued at $36.35 Billion in 2019 and is projected to reach $115.98 Billion by 2027, growing at a CAGR of 15.6% from 2020 to 2027.
Last year, NASA used the Company’s PPR technology to safely transport to and store lithium batteries aboard the International Space Station as well as collaborated with KULR on NASA’s high-voltage battery safety guide. Earlier this year, KULR licensed its technologies to Americase, which provides the world’s most widely used return packaging solution for damaged, defective, or recalled batteries.
About KULR Technology Group, Inc. KULR Technology Group, Inc. develops, manufactures and licenses next-generation carbon fiber thermal management technologies for batteries and electronic systems. Leveraging the company’s roots in developing breakthrough cooling solutions for NASA space missions and backed by a strong intellectual property portfolio, KULR enables leading aerospace, electronics, energy storage, 5G infrastructure, and electric vehicle manufacturers to make their products cooler, lighter and safer for the consumer. For more information, please visit www.kulrtechnology.com.
About Hazmat Safety Consulting HSC has over 60 years of combined experience in developing, influencing, and interpreting lithium battery safety regulations for the safe transport of lithium batteries. The Company specializes in applying years of experience working with US and international regulators, shippers, carriers, freight forwarders, standards body officials and others related to the transport of dangerous goods. For more information, please visit, https://www.hazmatsafety.com.
Safe Harbor Statement This release does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of offers to buy any securities of any entity. This release contains certain forward-looking statements based on our current expectations, forecasts and assumptions that involve risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements in this release are based on information available to us as of the date hereof. Our actual results may differ materially from those stated or implied in such forward-looking statements, due to risks and uncertainties associated with our business, which include the risk factors disclosed in our Form 10-K filed on May 14, 2020. Forward-looking statements include statements regarding our expectations, beliefs, intentions or strategies regarding the future and can be identified by forward-looking words such as "anticipate," "believe," "could," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "may," "should," and "would" or similar words. All forecasts are provided by management in this release are based on information available at this time and management expects that internal projections and expectations may change over time. In addition, the forecasts are entirely on management’s best estimate of our future financial performance given our current contracts, current backlog of opportunities and conversations with new and existing customers about our products and services. We assume no obligation to update the information included in this press release, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Source: https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020/09/02/2087665/0/en/KULR-Technology-Group-and-Hazmat-Safety-Consulting-Begin-Work-to-Improve-Industry-Standards-for-Commercial-Shipments-of-Batteries.html
submitted by supernova2020 to stocks [link] [comments]


2020.09.02 15:35 supernova2020 KULR Technology Group and Hazmat Safety Consulting Begin Work to Improve Industry Standards for Commercial Shipments of Batteries

Comes on the heels of KULR’s recent announcement on its participation in meetings with the United Nations Transport of Dangerous Goods Sub-Committee Informal Working Group
SAN DIEGO, Sept. 02, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- KULR Technology Group, Inc. (OTCQB: KULR) (the “Company” or “KULR”) today announced that the Company has commenced work on helping establish updated industry safety standards for lithium battery packaging used to ship batteries commercially. In April 2020, the Company announced a partnership with Hazmat Safety Consulting (“Hazmat”), an organization with over 60 years of combined experience in developing, influencing, and interpreting lithium battery safety regulations for the safe transport of lithium batteries.
This week, KULR is participating in meetings of the United Nations Transport of Dangerous Goods Sub-Committee Informal Working Group to establish test methods and criteria by which lithium batteries can be more effectively regulated based on their inherent hazards. On September 15, 2020, the Company will present to a subcommittee of the Transportation Research Board on the Prevention of Thermal Runaway Propagation in Lithium Batteries. KULR’s passive propagation resistant (PPR) design solutions prevent dangerous cell-to-cell thermal runaway propagation. KULR’s PPR solutions were recently adopted by NASA for use in future space missions.
Lithium battery fires -- such as the incidents that destroyed a UPS plane in 2010 and a FedEx truck in 2016-- have increasingly become a public safety concern. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has called for stricter testing and shipping standards for lithium batteries and submitted safety recommendations to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), a division of the Department of Transportation responsible for developing, issuing, and enforcing safety regulations for the transport of hazardous materials, in May 2020.
“Bob Richard, President of Hazmat, who formerly served as the Deputy Associate Administrator for the PHMSA and Chairman of the UN Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, will be instrumental in guiding us through the steps required to implement minimum packaging standards required to ship lithium batteries,” said Michael Mo, CEO of KULR. “Our PPR technologies are world-class solutions for preventing dangerous battery fires, and we share the NTSB’s, concerns about current safety standards. Requiring that lithium batteries be shipped in packaging capable of preventing thermal runaway propagation makes logical sense and should be taken into serious consideration by the PHMSA.”
According to Verified Market Research, the global lithium ion battery market was valued at $36.35 Billion in 2019 and is projected to reach $115.98 Billion by 2027, growing at a CAGR of 15.6% from 2020 to 2027.
Last year, NASA used the Company’s PPR technology to safely transport to and store lithium batteries aboard the International Space Station as well as collaborated with KULR on NASA’s high-voltage battery safety guide. Earlier this year, KULR licensed its technologies to Americase, which provides the world’s most widely used return packaging solution for damaged, defective, or recalled batteries.
About KULR Technology Group, Inc. KULR Technology Group, Inc. develops, manufactures and licenses next-generation carbon fiber thermal management technologies for batteries and electronic systems. Leveraging the company’s roots in developing breakthrough cooling solutions for NASA space missions and backed by a strong intellectual property portfolio, KULR enables leading aerospace, electronics, energy storage, 5G infrastructure, and electric vehicle manufacturers to make their products cooler, lighter and safer for the consumer. For more information, please visit www.kulrtechnology.com.
About Hazmat Safety Consulting HSC has over 60 years of combined experience in developing, influencing, and interpreting lithium battery safety regulations for the safe transport of lithium batteries. The Company specializes in applying years of experience working with US and international regulators, shippers, carriers, freight forwarders, standards body officials and others related to the transport of dangerous goods. For more information, please visit, https://www.hazmatsafety.com.
Safe Harbor Statement This release does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of offers to buy any securities of any entity. This release contains certain forward-looking statements based on our current expectations, forecasts and assumptions that involve risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements in this release are based on information available to us as of the date hereof. Our actual results may differ materially from those stated or implied in such forward-looking statements, due to risks and uncertainties associated with our business, which include the risk factors disclosed in our Form 10-K filed on May 14, 2020. Forward-looking statements include statements regarding our expectations, beliefs, intentions or strategies regarding the future and can be identified by forward-looking words such as "anticipate," "believe," "could," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "may," "should," and "would" or similar words. All forecasts are provided by management in this release are based on information available at this time and management expects that internal projections and expectations may change over time. In addition, the forecasts are entirely on management’s best estimate of our future financial performance given our current contracts, current backlog of opportunities and conversations with new and existing customers about our products and services. We assume no obligation to update the information included in this press release, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Source: https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020/09/02/2087665/0/en/KULR-Technology-Group-and-Hazmat-Safety-Consulting-Begin-Work-to-Improve-Industry-Standards-for-Commercial-Shipments-of-Batteries.html
submitted by supernova2020 to pennystocks [link] [comments]


2020.09.01 22:07 eZGjBw1Z [Scotch] Classic Malts Coastal and Strong Collections on Clearance Today

I'm not a Scotch expert but this seems like a deal worth posting.
Today's price changes dropped the price by $26 to $38.99 for both of these products
Although OHLQ says these are 200 ML products, Brand Master says they're 20.4 oz which is 603.3 ML. This matches up with the 3x200 ML products linked in parenthesis above. This three pack is $1.92/fl oz. Separately, the 750 ML bottles of each of these products are more expensive so this could be a good way to try new things at a good value.
The catch is that when these products are de-listed (and flagged as Last Call items?) we are completely blocked from seeing their availability online in all but a few stores (more than just the Last Call stores for some reason). The Coastal Pack was de-listed on 7/1 data from then is now two months out of date. The Strong Pack was de-listed today so at least that's a bit more recent. They have also hidden the Strong Pack at any store that is not a Last Call location. Both products are actually listed on the Last Call products list. HandMeSomeHandsome shared that stores are not required to send product back to the state to be consolidated at Last Call locations so you may be able to find this stuff closer to home.
As of the end of last update on 6/30, just before it was de-listed, CLASSIC MALTS - COASTAL PACK was shown in the following stores. Some may have sold out by now but I doubt any other stores than these would have received this product after it was de-listed
  1. Lake's Beverage 3963 S. Main Street, Akron
  2. Silver Spirits Liquor Agency 1482 North Portage Path, Akron
  3. Kroger 919 East State Street, Athens
  4. Wine Reserve Of Aurora 1029 Aurora Road, Aurora
  5. Giant Eagle 24601 Chagrin Blvd.-Liq Dept., Beachwood
  6. Kroger 4100 Hunt Road, Blue Ash
  7. Giant Eagle 4343 E. Royalton Road, Broadview Heights
  8. Giant Eagle 3440 Center Road, Brunswick
  9. Top Shelf 7257 Fulton Dr NW, Canton
  10. Fishers Foods 5215 Fulton Drive Nw Jackson Twp, Canton
  11. Wine Reserve 16785 Chillicothe Rd, Chagrin Falls
  12. Giant Eagle 351 Center St, Chardon
  13. Jungle Jim's 4450 Eastgate Boulevard, Cincinnati
  14. Kroger 3760 Paxton Avenue, Cincinnati
  15. Westside Liquor 2315 Ferguson Rd, Cincinnati
  16. Kroger 2120 Beechmont, Cincinnati
  17. Giant Eagle 3050 W. 117Th St., Cleveland
  18. Downtown Liquor 1303 West 6Th Street, Cleveland
  19. Zagara's Marketplace 1940 Lee Road, Cleveland Heights
  20. Northwest Wine and Spirits 821 Bethel Road, Columbus
  21. Galloway Wine & Spirits 950 Galloway Rd, Columbus
  22. Giant Eagle 840 W 3rd Ave, Columbus
  23. Kroger 150 W Sycamore Street, Columbus
  24. Honeybee Drive Thru 1600 S. High Street, Columbus
  25. Chateau Wine & Spirits 2131 Polaris Parkway, Columbus
  26. Arena Wine & Spirits 492 Armstrong Street, Columbus
  27. Giant Eagle 5461 New Albany Road West, Columbus
  28. Giant Eagle 6867 E Broad St, Columbus
  29. Kroger 1177 Polaris Parkway, Columbus
  30. Weiland's Market 3600 Indianola Avenue, Columbus
  31. Giant Eagle 2687 State Road, Cuyahoga Falls
  32. Fine Wine & True Spirits 6080 Wilmington Pike, Dayton
  33. Kroger 1840 Columbus Pike, Delaware
  34. Kroger 7625 Sawmill Rd, Dublin
  35. Giant Eagle 6700 Perimeter Loop Rd, Dublin
  36. Chateau Wine & Spirits 6665 Sawmill Road, Dublin
  37. Kroger 885 Union Blvd., Englewood
  38. Jungle Jim's International Market 5440 Dixie Highway, Fairfield
  39. Beverage Barn 1901 Tiffin Ave, Findlay
  40. Giant Eagle 1250 North Hamilton Road, Gahanna
  41. That's The Spirit 8039 State Street, Garrettsville
  42. Kroger 2525 Hilliard Rome Road, Hilliard
  43. Arrow Wine Stores 2950 Far Hills Ave, Kettering
  44. Simone's Beverage & Deli 18414-26 Detroit Ave, Lakewood
  45. Giant Eagle 1394 Ety Shops Way, Lancaster
  46. Giant Eagle 55 Meadow Park Ave. Orange Twp., Lewis Center
  47. Kroger 31550 Chieftain Drive, Logan
  48. O'Bryan's Wine & Spirits 8972 Columbia Road Unit A, Loveland
  49. Giant Eagle 25105 Cedar Rd., Lyndhurst
  50. Spirits of Madeira 6917-19 Miami Ave., Madeira
  51. Arrow Wine & Spirits 6061 Radio Way, Mason
  52. Pauken Wine & Liquor 221 Golden Gate Shopping Center, Maumee
  53. Golden Gate Beverag. & Liquor 6105 Mayfield Road, Mayfield Heights
  54. World Wines And Liquor 8760 Mentor Avenue, Mentor
  55. Giant Eagle 6869 Southland Drive, Middleburg Heights
  56. Giant Eagle 27264 Lorain Road, North Olmsted
  57. Giant Eagle 34325 Center Ridge Road, North Ridgeville
  58. Royal Park Beverage 12770 Royalton Road, North Royalton
  59. Giant Eagle 290 Aurora Rd, Northfield
  60. Giant Eagle 7400 Broadview Road, Parma
  61. Giant Eagle 7939 Day Drive, Parma
  62. Pat O'Brien's Fine Wines 30800 Pine Tree Drive, Pepper Pike
  63. Kroger 1045 Hill Road North, Pickerington
  64. Giant Eagle 873 Refugee Rd., Pickerington
  65. Ale Wine and Spirits 7560 Guardwell Street, Powell
  66. Minotti's Rocky River Wine Shop 19831 Detroit Rd, Rocky River
  67. Giant Eagle 4260 Sr 44 Unit 1, Rootstown
  68. Giant Eagle 34310 Aurora Road, Solon
  69. Springboro Spirits 748 Gardner Rd., Springboro
  70. Giant Eagle 1280 State Route 303, Streetsboro
  71. Giant Eagle 15919 Pearl Rd, Strongsville
  72. Joseph's Beverage Center 4129 Talmadge Road, Toledo
  73. Giant Eagle 3061 Kingsdale Center, Upper Arlington
  74. Giant Eagle 825 Ambassador Dr., Wadsworth
  75. Kroger 7345 S.R. 3 Genoa Twp., Westerville
  76. Giant Eagle 30275 Detroit Rd., Westlake
  77. Kroger 60 Worthington Mall, Worthington
  78. The Hills Market 7860 Olentangy River Rd., Worthington
As of the end of the day yesterday, CLASSIC MALTS - STRONG PACK was in these 128 stores. Give them a call or a visit soon and they may still have the product before it gets sent off to the Last Call locations.
  1. Lake's Beverage 3963 S. Main Street, Akron
  2. Silver Spirits Liquor Agency 1482 North Portage Path, Akron
  3. Cork and Brew 349 West Market Street, Akron
  4. Leprechaun Party House 2707 Manchester Rd., Akron
  5. Giant Eagle 1800 W. State Street, Alliance
  6. Giant Eagle 2201 Kresge Drive, Amherst
  7. GS Spirits 2302 Metcalf Drive, Ashtabula
  8. Kroger 919 East State Street, Athens
  9. Aurora Spirits 312 Aurora Commons Circle, Aurora
  10. Wine Reserve Of Aurora 1029 Aurora Road, Aurora
  11. Giant Eagle 31990 Walker Road, Avon Lake
  12. Giant Eagle 24601 Chagrin Blvd.-Liq Dept., Beachwood
  13. Kroger 1094 North Main Street, Bowling Green
  14. Giant Eagle 4343 E. Royalton Road, Broadview Heights
  15. Giant Eagle 3440 Center Road, Brunswick
  16. Top Shelf 7257 Fulton Dr NW, Canton
  17. Rocky's Wine & Beverage 3616 Cleveland Avenue South, Canton
  18. Fishers Foods 5215 Fulton Drive Nw Jackson Twp, Canton
  19. Lakeview Carry Out 103 East Logan Street, Celina
  20. Wine Reserve 16785 Chillicothe Rd, Chagrin Falls
  21. Giant Eagle 351 Center St, Chardon
  22. Jungle Jim's 4450 Eastgate South Blvd, Cincinnati
  23. Cincy Liquors 7617 Reading Road Unit D, Cincinnati
  24. Kroger 1 West Corry Street, Cincinnati
  25. Hyde Park Wine And Spirits 2719 Madison Road, Cincinnati
  26. Kroger 3760 Paxton Avenue, Cincinnati
  27. Westside Liquor 2315 Ferguson Rd, Cincinnati
  28. Kroger 7578 Beechmont Ave, Cincinnati
  29. Giant Eagle 3050 W. 117Th St., Cleveland
  30. Zagara's Marketplace 1940 Lee Road, Cleveland Heights
  31. Northwest Wine and Spirits 821 Bethel Road, Columbus
  32. Galloway Wine & Spirits 950 Galloway Rd, Columbus
  33. Kroger 1375 Chambers, Columbus
  34. Giant Eagle 4747 Sawmill Road, Columbus
  35. Giant Eagle 840 W 3rd Ave, Columbus
  36. Kroger 150 W Sycamore Street, Columbus
  37. Kroger 3600 Soldano Blvd, Columbus
  38. Chateau Wine & Spirits 2131 Polaris Parkway, Columbus
  39. Kroger 199 Graceland Blvd, Columbus
  40. Arena Wine & Spirits 492 Armstrong Street, Columbus
  41. Giant Eagle 5461 New Albany Road West, Columbus
  42. Giant Eagle 6867 E Broad St, Columbus
  43. Kroger 1177 Polaris Parkway, Columbus
  44. Weiland's Market 3600 Indianola Avenue, Columbus
  45. Giant Eagle 6700 Hayden Run Road, Columbus-Hilliard
  46. Buehlers 830 S. Second Street, Coshocton
  47. Kork & Kap 135 E Main St, Crestline
  48. Giant Eagle 2687 State Road, Cuyahoga Falls
  49. Liquor and Wine Warehouse 3440 York Commons Blvd, Dayton
  50. Fine Wine & True Spirits 6080 Wilmington Pike, Dayton
  51. Kroger 1840 Columbus Pike, Delaware
  52. Giant Eagle 515 Union Ave., Dover
  53. Giant Eagle 6700 Perimeter Loop Rd, Dublin
  54. Chateau Wine & Spirits 6665 Sawmill Road, Dublin
  55. Discount Tobacco & Beverage 34722 Vine Street, Eastlake
  56. Kroger 885 Union Blvd., Englewood
  57. Jungle Jim's International Market 5440 Dixie Highway, Fairfield
  58. 1837 Wine and Spirits Emporium 1383 E. Johnstown Road, Gahanna
  59. Giant Eagle 1250 North Hamilton Road, Gahanna
  60. Giant Eagle 5744 Transportation Blvd., Garfield Heights
  61. Giant Eagle 2173 Stringtown Road, Grove City
  62. Kroger 2525 Hilliard Rome Road, Hilliard
  63. Miami Wine and Liquor 6565 Brandt Pike, Huber Heights
  64. Wine & Liquor Depot 96 E. Coshocton Street, Johnstown
  65. Arrow Wine Stores 2950 Far Hills Ave, Kettering
  66. Simone's Beverage & Deli 18414-26 Detroit Ave, Lakewood
  67. Giant Eagle 1394 Ety Shops Way, Lancaster
  68. Giant Eagle 55 Meadow Park Ave. Orange Twp., Lewis Center
  69. O'Bryan's Wine & Spirits 8972 Columbia Road Unit A, Loveland
  70. Giant Eagle 25105 Cedar Rd., Lyndhurst
  71. Spirits of Madeira 6917-19 Miami Ave., Madeira
  72. Kroger 1240 Park Ave West, Mansfield
  73. Arrow Wine & Spirits 6061 Radio Way, Mason
  74. Walt Churchill's Market 3320 Briarfield Blvd., Maumee
  75. Golden Gate Beverage & Liquor 6105 Mayfield Road, Mayfield Heights
  76. Buehler's 3626 Medina Road Montville Township, Medina
  77. Buehler's - North Court Beverage 998 North Court St, Medina
  78. World Wines And Liquor 8760 Mentor Avenue, Mentor
  79. Giant Eagle 6869 Southland Drive, Middleburg Heights
  80. Lehr's Prime Market 740 Main St, Milford
  81. The Wine Connection 1258 S.R. 28 Miami Twp., Milford
  82. Kroger 1155 21St Street, Newark
  83. Giant Eagle 1955 & 1959 East Maple Street, North Canton
  84. ACME 1474 N Main St, North Canton
  85. Chalet Premier 10000 Market Street-Beaver Twp., North Lima
  86. Cap and Corks 25141 Lorain Rd., North Olmsted
  87. Giant Eagle 27264 Lorain Road, North Olmsted
  88. Giant Eagle 34325 Center Ridge Road, North Ridgeville
  89. Royal Park Beverage 12770 Royalton Road, North Royalton
  90. Johnny's Carry Out & Wine Shop 12290 Sr 58 North Russia Twp., Oberlin
  91. Oxford Spirits 21 Lynn Avenue Unit 108, Oxford
  92. Giant Eagle 7400 Broadview Road, Parma
  93. Giant Eagle 7939 Day Drive, Parma
  94. Pat O'Brien's Fine Wines 30800 Pine Tree Drive, Pepper Pike
  95. Rite Aid Discount Pharmacy 1175 Louisiana Ave., Perrysburg
  96. Giant Eagle 873 Refugee Rd., Pickerington
  97. Giant Eagle 4000 West Powell Rd, Powell
  98. Ale Wine and Spirits 7560 Guardwell Street, Powell
  99. Kroger 6580 East Main Street, Reynoldsburg
  100. Corkscrew Johnny's 2542 Brecksville Road, Richfield
  101. Minotti's Rocky River Wine Shop 19831 Detroit Rd, Rocky River
  102. Giant Eagle 4260 Sr 44 Unit 1, Rootstown
  103. Giant Eagle 34310 Aurora Road, Solon
  104. Keg n Cork Beverage Center 1115 Mitchell Blvd., Springfield
  105. Wine Works 1550 Commerce Road, Springfield
  106. Giant Eagle 4300 Kent Road, Stow
  107. Giant Eagle 1700 Norton Road, Stow
  108. Giant Eagle 1280 State Route 303, Streetsboro
  109. Giant Eagle 15919 Pearl Rd, Strongsville
  110. Gill's Beverage And Deli 13923 Prospect Rd, Strongsville
  111. Marino's Beverage Depot 5829 C Monroe Street, Sylvania
  112. Joseph's Beverage Center 4129 Talmadge Road, Toledo
  113. Twinsburg Beverage 9224 Darrow Rd Units F & G, Twinsburg
  114. Green Road Liquor 2181 South Green Rd, University Heights
  115. Giant Eagle 3061 Kingsdale Center, Upper Arlington
  116. Giant Eagle 4453 E. Liberty Avenue, Vermilion
  117. Giant Eagle 825 Ambassador Dr., Wadsworth
  118. Beckett Wine & Liquor 8211 Princeton Glendale Rd, West Chester
  119. Kroger 55 W. Schrock, Westerville
  120. Kroger 7345 S.R. 3 Genoa Twp., Westerville
  121. Giant Eagle 30275 Detroit Rd., Westlake
  122. Giant Eagle 36475 Euclid Avenue, Willoughby
  123. Shoregate Beverage & Liquor 30498 Lake Shore Blvd, Willowick
  124. Buehler's Milltown 3540 Burbank Road, Wooster
  125. Kroger 60 Worthington Mall, Worthington
  126. The Hills Market 7860 Olentangy River Rd., Worthington
  127. Wine Cellar 105 S. Meridian Road, Youngstown
  128. A & C Southway Beverage 45 South Ave 1St Fl, Youngstown
submitted by eZGjBw1Z to OhioLiquor [link] [comments]


2020.08.16 18:59 businessfish Does anyone else have audio crackling/popping on Linux?

EDIT Fix found here
I'm running Manjaro w/ KDE and am experiencing audio issues that basically make it impossible to use the headset. I've tried plugging my own headphones in through the HMD's audio jack and it produces the same result.
Below is my inxi -Fxxxz
System: Host: water Kernel: 4.19.133-1-MANJARO x86_64 bits: 64 compiler: gcc v: 10.1.0 Desktop: KDE Plasma 5.19.3 tk: Qt 5.15.0 wm: kwin_x11 dm: SDDM Distro: Manjaro Linux Machine: Type: Desktop Mobo: ASUSTeK model: ROG STRIX X370-F GAMING v: Rev X.0x serial:  UEFI: American Megatrends v: 3803 date: 01/22/2018 CPU: Topology: 6-Core model: AMD Ryzen 5 1600 bits: 64 type: MT MCP arch: Zen rev: 1 L2 cache: 3072 KiB flags: avx avx2 lm nx pae sse sse2 sse3 sse4_1 sse4_2 sse4a ssse3 svm bogomips: 76645 Speed: 3368 MHz min/max: 1550/3200 MHz boost: enabled Core speeds (MHz): 1: 3368 2: 3370 3: 3381 4: 3380 5: 3365 6: 3364 7: 3332 8: 3330 9: 3342 10: 3344 11: 3358 12: 3360 Graphics: Device-1: NVIDIA GP104 [GeForce GTX 1080] vendor: Gigabyte driver: nvidia v: 440.100 bus ID: 09:00.0 chip ID: 10de:1b80 Display: x11 server: X.Org 1.20.8 driver: nvidia compositor: kwin_x11 resolution: 1920x1080~60Hz OpenGL: renderer: GeForce GTX 1080/PCIe/SSE2 v: 4.6.0 NVIDIA 440.100 direct render: Yes Audio: Device-1: NVIDIA GP104 High Definition Audio vendor: Gigabyte driver: snd_hda_intel v: kernel bus ID: 09:00.1 chip ID: 10de:10f0 Device-2: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] Family 17h HD Audio vendor: ASUSTeK driver: snd_hda_intel v: kernel bus ID: 0b:00.3 chip ID: 1022:1457 Device-3: Logitech HD Webcam C615 type: USB driver: snd-usb-audio,uvcvideo bus ID: 1-6:2 chip ID: 046d:082c serial:  Device-4: C-Media Blue Snowball type: USB driver: hid-generic,snd-usb-audio,usbhid bus ID: 5-2:3 chip ID: 0d8c:0005 serial:  Device-5: Valve Blue Snowball type: USB driver: cdc_acm,hid-generic,usbhid bus ID: 5-1.3.3:21 chip ID: 28de:2102 serial:  Device-6: Valve ZOWIE Gaming mouse type: USB driver: hid-generic,snd-usb-audio,usbhid Sound Server: ALSA v: k4.19.133-1-MANJARO Network: Device-1: Intel I211 Gigabit Network vendor: ASUSTeK driver: igb v: 5.4.0-k port: e000 bus ID: 04:00.0 chip ID: 8086:1539 IF: enp4s0 state: up speed: 100 Mbps duplex: full mac:  Drives: Local Storage: total: 2.04 TiB used: 1.02 TiB (50.1%) ID-1: /dev/sda vendor: SanDisk model: SSD PLUS 240 GB size: 223.58 GiB speed: 6.0 Gb/s serial:  rev: 00RL scheme: GPT ID-2: /dev/sdb vendor: Seagate model: ST2000DM006-2DM164 size: 1.82 TiB speed: 6.0 Gb/s rotation: 7200 rpm serial:  rev: CC26 scheme: GPT Partition: ID-1: / size: 210.12 GiB used: 26.10 GiB (12.4%) fs: ext4 dev: /dev/sda2 ID-2: swap-1 size: 8.80 GiB used: 0 KiB (0.0%) fs: swap dev: /dev/sda3 Sensors: System Temperatures: cpu: 62.5 C mobo: N/A gpu: nvidia temp: 57 C Fan Speeds (RPM): cpu: 0 gpu: nvidia fan: 40% Info: Processes: 308 Uptime: 20m Memory: 31.40 GiB used: 8.35 GiB (26.6%) Init: systemd v: 245 Compilers: gcc: 10.1.0 Shell: bash v: 5.0.18 running in: konsole inxi: 3.0.37 
submitted by businessfish to ValveIndex [link] [comments]


2020.08.14 15:42 ivanpd 3rd Call for Papers: REBLS 20: Reactive and Event-Based Languages and Systems

Hi everyone. I'm organizing a workshop, colocated with Splash, on reactive programming.
The event will take place online. We've extended the paper submission deadline till Friday next week. Hope it's of your interest. It would be great if you could pass it along.
(Sorry if you see this multiple times.)
--
CALL FOR PAPERS
7th Workshop on Reactive and Event-based Languages and Systems (REBLS 2020) co-located with the SPLASH Conference
*** BOTH EVENTS WILL NOW TAKE PLACE ONLINE ***
Sun 15 - Fri 20 November 2020 Website: https://2020.splashcon.org/home/rebls-2020
IMPORTANT DATES
Submission Deadline: 21 Aug 2020 (extended) Author Notification: 18 Sep 2020 Camera Ready Deadline: 9 Oct 2020
INTRODUCTION
Reactive programming and event-based programming are two closely related programming styles that are becoming more important with the ever increasing requirement for applications to run on the web or on mobile devices, and the advent of advanced High-Performance Computing (HPC) technology.
A number of publications on middleware and language design -- so-called reactive and event-based languages and systems (REBLS) -- have already seen the light, but the field still raises several questions. For example, the interaction with mainstream language concepts is poorly understood, implementation technology is still lacking, and modularity mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Moreover, large applications are still to be developed, and, consequently, patterns and tools for developing large reactive applications are still in their infancy.
This workshop will gather researchers in reactive and event-based languages and systems. The goal of the workshop is to exchange new technical research results and to better define the field by developing taxonomies and discussing overviews of the existing work.
We welcome all submissions on reactive programming, functional reactive programming, and event- and aspect- oriented systems, including but not limited to:
* Language design, implementation, runtime systems, program analysis, software metrics, patterns and benchmarks.
* Formal models for reactive and event-based programming.
* Study of the paradigm: interaction of reactive and event-based programming with existing language features such as object-oriented programming, pure functional programming, mutable state, concurrency.
* Modularity and abstraction mechanisms in large systems.
* Advanced event systems, event quantification, event composition, aspect-oriented programming for reactive applications.
* Functional Reactive Programming (FRP), self-adjusting computation and incremental computing.
* Synchronous languages, modeling real-time systems, safety-critical reactive and embedded systems.
* Applications, case studies that show the efficacy of reactive programming.
* Empirical studies that motivate further research in the field.
* Patterns and best-practices.
* Related fields, such as complex event processing, reactive data structures, view maintenance, constraint-based languages, and their integration with reactive programming.
* Implementation technology, language runtimes, virtual machine support, compilers.
* IDEs, Tools.
The format of the workshop is that of a mini-conference. Participants can present their work in slots of 30 mins with Q&A included. Because of the declarative nature of reactive programs, it is often hard to understand their semantics just by looking at the code. We therefore also encourage authors to use their slots for presenting their work based on live demos.
SUBMISSIONS
REBLS encourages submissions of two types of papers:
* Full papers: papers that describe complete research results. These papers will be published in the ACM digital library.
* In-progress papers: papers that have the potential of triggering an interesting discussion at the workshop or present new ideas that require further systematic investigation. These papers will not be published in the ACM digital library.
Format:
* Submissions should use the ACM SIGPLAN Conference acmart Format with the two-column, sigplan Subformat, 10 point font, using Biolinum as sans-serif font and Libertine as serif font. All submissions should be in PDF format. If you use LaTeX or Word, please use the ACM SIGPLAN acmart Templates.
The page http://www.sigplan.org/Resources/Autho#acmart-format contains instructions for authors, and a package that includes an example file acmart-sigplan.tex.
* Authors are required to explicitly specify the type of paper in the submission (i.e., full paper, in-progress paper).
* Full papers can be *up to* 12 pages in length, excluding references. In-progress papers can be *up to* 6 pages, excluding references. Papers do not need to make use of all pages, but they will be summarily rejected if they exceed the page limits.
Instructions for the Authors:
* Papers should be submitted through: https://rebls20.hotcrp.com/
* For fairness reasons, all submitted papers should conform to the formatting instructions. Submissions that violate these instructions will be summarily rejected.
* Program Committee members are allowed to submit papers, but their papers will be held to a higher standard.
* Papers must describe unpublished work that is not currently submitted for publication elsewhere as described by SIGPLAN’s Republication Policy (http://www.sigplan.org/Resources/Policies/Republication). Submitters should also be aware of ACM’s Policy and Procedures on Plagiarism.
* All submissions are expected to comply with the ACM Policies for Authorship detailed at https://www.acm.org/publications/authors/information-for-authors.
PROGRAM COMMITTEE
Ivan Perez (PC Chair; NIA)
Alan Jeffrey, Mozilla Research. Christiaan Baaij, QBayLogic. César Sánchez, IMDEA Software. Daniel Winograd-Cort, Target Corp. Edward Amsden, Black River Software, LLC. Guerric Chupin, University of Nottingham. Heinrich Apfelmus. Jonathan Thaler, University of Applied Sciences Vorarlberg. Louis Mandel, IBM Research. Manuel Bärenz, sonnen eServices GmbH. Marc Pouzet, Université Pierre et Marie Curie. Mark Santolucito, University of Yale. Neil Sculthorpe, University of Nottingham Trent. Noemi Rodriguez, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro Oleksandra Bulgakova, Sukhomlynsky Mykolaiv National University Patrick Bahr, University of Copenhagen Takuo Watanabe, Tokyo Institute of Technology Tetsuo Kamina, Oita University Tom Van Cutsem, Nokia Bell Labs Yoshiki Ohshima, HARC / Y Combinator Research
STEERING COMMITTEE
Guido Salvaneschi, TU Darmstadt, Germany Wolfgang De Meuter, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium Patrick Eugster, Universita della Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland Francisco Sant'Anna, Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil Lukasz Ziarek, SUNY Buffalo, United States
submitted by ivanpd to haskell [link] [comments]


2020.08.13 22:21 OB8O Every Legal 4-Letter Word In Scrabble

AAHS AALS ABAC ABAS ABBA ABBE ABBS ABED ABET ABID ABLE ABLY ABOS ABRI ABUT ABYE ABYS ACAI ACCA ACED ACER ACES ACHE ACHY ACID ACME ACNE ACRE ACTA ACTS ACYL ADAW ADDS ADDY ADIT ADOS ADRY ADZE AEON AERO AERY AESC AFAR AFFY AFRO AGAR AGAS AGED AGEE AGEN AGER AGES AGHA AGIN AGIO AGLU AGLY AGMA AGOG AGON AGUE AHED AHEM AHIS AHOY AIAS AIDA AIDE AIDS AIGA AILS AIMS AINE AINS AIRN AIRS AIRT AIRY AITS AITU AJAR AJEE AKAS AKED AKEE AKES AKIN ALAE ALAN ALAP ALAR ALAS ALAY ALBA ALBE ALBS ALCO ALEC ALEE ALEF ALES ALEW ALFA ALFS ALGA ALIF ALIT ALKO ALKY ALLS ALLY ALMA ALME ALMS ALOD ALOE ALOO ALOW ALPS ALSO ALTO ALTS ALUM ALUS AMAH AMAS AMBO AMEN AMES AMIA AMID AMIE AMIN AMIR AMIS AMLA AMMO AMOK AMPS AMUS AMYL ANAL ANAN ANAS ANCE ANDS ANES ANEW ANGA ANIL ANIS ANKH ANNA ANNO ANNS ANOA ANON ANOW ANSA ANTA ANTE ANTI ANTS ANUS APAY APED APER APES APEX APOD APOS APPS APSE APSO APTS AQUA ARAK ARAR ARBA ARBS ARCH ARCO ARCS ARDS AREA ARED AREG ARES ARET AREW ARFS ARGH ARIA ARID ARIL ARIS ARKS ARLE ARMS ARMY ARNA AROW ARPA ARSE ARSY ARTI ARTS ARTY ARUM ARVO ARYL ASAR ASCI ASEA ASHY ASKS ASPS ATAP ATES ATMA ATOC ATOK ATOM ATOP ATUA AUAS AUFS AUKS AULA AULD AUNE AUNT AURA AUTO AVAL AVAS AVEL AVER AVES AVID AVOS AVOW AWAY AWDL AWED AWEE AWES AWFY AWKS AWLS AWNS AWNY AWOL AWRY AXAL AXED AXEL AXES AXIL AXIS AXLE AXON AYAH AYES AYIN AYRE AYUS AZAN AZON AZYM
BAAL BAAS BABA BABE BABU BABY BACH BACK BACS BADE BADS BAEL BAFF BAFT BAGH BAGS BAHT BAHU BAIL BAIT BAJU BAKE BALD BALE BALK BALL BALM BALS BALU BAMS BANC BAND BANE BANG BANI BANK BANS BANT BAPS BAPU BARB BARD BARE BARF BARK BARM BARN BARP BARS BASE BASH BASK BASS BAST BATE BATH BATS BATT BAUD BAUK BAUR BAWD BAWL BAWN BAWR BAYE BAYS BAYT BEAD BEAK BEAM BEAN BEAR BEAT BEAU BECK BEDE BEDS BEDU BEEF BEEN BEEP BEER BEES BEET BEGO BEGS BEIN BELL BELS BELT BEMA BEND BENE BENI BENJ BENS BENT BERE BERG BERK BERM BEST BETA BETE BETH BETS BEVY BEYS BHAI BHAT BHEL BHUT BIAS BIBB BIBS BICE BIDE BIDI BIDS BIEN BIER BIFF BIGA BIGG BIGS BIKE BILE BILK BILL BIMA BIND BINE BING BINK BINS BINT BIOG BIOS BIRD BIRK BIRL BIRO BIRR BISE BISH BISK BIST BITE BITO BITS BITT BIZE BLAB BLAD BLAE BLAG BLAH BLAM BLAT BLAW BLAY BLEB BLED BLEE BLET BLEW BLEY BLIN BLIP BLIT BLOB BLOC BLOG BLOT BLOW BLUB BLUE BLUR BOAB BOAK BOAR BOAS BOAT BOBA BOBS BOCK BODE BODS BODY BOEP BOET BOFF BOGS BOGY BOHO BOHS BOIL BOIS BOKE BOKO BOKS BOLA BOLD BOLE BOLL BOLO BOLT BOMA BOMB BONA BOND BONE BONG BONK BONY BOOB BOOH BOOK BOOL BOOM BOON BOOR BOOS BOOT BOPS BORA BORD BORE BORK BORM BORN BORS BORT BOSH BOSK BOSS BOTA BOTE BOTH BOTS BOTT BOUK BOUN BOUT BOWL BOWR BOWS BOXY BOYF BOYG BOYO BOYS BOZO BRAD BRAE BRAG BRAK BRAN BRAS BRAT BRAW BRAY BRED BREE BREI BREN BRER BREW BREY BRIE BRIG BRIK BRIM BRIN BRIO BRIS BRIT BROD BROG BROO BROS BROW BRRR BRUS BRUT BRUX BUAT BUBA BUBO BUBS BUBU BUCK BUDA BUDI BUDO BUDS BUFF BUFO BUGS BUHL BUHR BUIK BUKE BULB BULK BULL BUMF BUMP BUMS BUNA BUND BUNG BUNK BUNN BUNS BUNT BUOY BURA BURB BURD BURG BURK BURL BURN BURP BURR BURS BURY BUSH BUSK BUSS BUST BUSY BUTE BUTS BUTT BUYS BUZZ BYDE BYES BYKE BYRE BYRL BYTE
CAAS CABA CABS CACA CACK CADE CADI CADS CAFE CAFF CAGE CAGS CAGY CAID CAIN CAKE CAKY CALF CALK CALL CALM CALO CALP CALX CAMA CAME CAMO CAMP CAMS CANE CANG CANN CANS CANT CANY CAPA CAPE CAPH CAPI CAPO CAPS CARB CARD CARE CARK CARL CARN CARP CARR CARS CART CASA CASE CASH CASK CAST CATE CATS CAUF CAUK CAUL CAUM CAUP CAVA CAVE CAVY CAWK CAWS CAYS CEAS CECA CEDE CEDI CEES CEIL CELL CELS CELT CENS CENT CEPE CEPS CERE CERO CERT CESS CETE CHAD CHAI CHAL CHAM CHAO CHAP CHAR CHAS CHAT CHAV CHAW CHAY CHEF CHER CHEW CHEZ CHIA CHIB CHIC CHID CHIK CHIN CHIP CHIS CHIT CHIV CHIZ CHOC CHOG CHON CHOP CHOU CHOW CHUB CHUG CHUM CHUR CHUT CIAO CIDE CIDS CIEL CIGS CILL CINE CION CIRE CIRL CIST CITE CITO CITS CITY CIVE CLAD CLAG CLAM CLAN CLAP CLAT CLAW CLAY CLEF CLEG CLEM CLEW CLIP CLIT CLOD CLOG CLON CLOP CLOT CLOU CLOW CLOY CLUB CLUE COAL COAT COAX COBB COBS COCA COCH COCK COCO CODA CODE CODS COED COFF COFT COGS COHO COIF COIL COIN COIR COIT COKE COKY COLA COLD COLE COLL COLS COLT COLY COMA COMB COME COMM COMP COMS COND CONE CONF CONI CONK CONN CONS CONY COOF COOK COOL COOM COON COOP COOS COOT COPE COPS COPY CORD CORE CORF CORK CORM CORN CORS CORY COSE COSH COSS COST COSY COTE COTH COTS COTT COUP COUR COVE COWK COWL COWP COWS COWY COXA COXY COYS COZE COZY CRAB CRAG CRAM CRAN CRAP CRAW CRAY CRED CREE CREM CREW CRIA CRIB CRIM CRIS CRIT CROC CROG CROP CROW CRUD CRUE CRUS CRUX CUBE CUBS CUDS CUED CUES CUFF CUIF CUIT CUKE CULL CULM CULT CUMS CUNT CUPS CURB CURD CURE CURF CURL CURN CURR CURS CURT CUSH CUSK CUSP CUSS CUTE CUTS CWMS CYAN CYMA CYME CYST CYTE CZAR
DAAL DABS DACE DACK DADA DADO DADS DAES DAFF DAFT DAGO DAGS DAHL DAHS DAIS DAKS DALE DALI DALS DALT DAME DAMN DAMP DAMS DANG DANK DANS DANT DAPS DARB DARE DARG DARI DARK DARN DART DASH DATA DATE DATO DAUB DAUD DAUR DAUT DAVY DAWD DAWK DAWN DAWS DAWT DAYS DAZE DEAD DEAF DEAL DEAN DEAR DEAW DEBE DEBS DEBT DECK DECO DEED DEEK DEEM DEEN DEEP DEER DEES DEET DEEV DEFI DEFO DEFT DEFY DEGS DEGU DEID DEIF DEIL DEKE DELE DELF DELI DELL DELO DELS DELT DEME DEMO DEMY DENE DENI DENS DENT DENY DERE DERM DERN DERO DERV DESI DESK DEUS DEVA DEVS DEWS DEWY DEXY DEYS DHAK DHAL DHOL DHOW DIAL DIBS DICE DICH DICK DICT DIDO DIDY DIEB DIED DIEL DIES DIET DIFF DIFS DIGS DIKA DIKE DILL DIME DIMP DIMS DINE DING DINK DINO DINS DINT DIOL DIPS DIPT DIRE DIRK DIRL DIRT DISA DISC DISH DISK DISS DITA DITE DITS DITT DITZ DIVA DIVE DIVI DIVO DIVS DIXI DIXY DIYA DJIN DOAB DOAT DOBS DOBY DOCK DOCO DOCS DODO DODS DOEK DOEN DOER DOES DOFF DOGE DOGS DOGY DOHS DOIT DOJO DOLE DOLL DOLS DOLT DOME DOMS DOMY DONA DONE DONG DONS DOOB DOOK DOOL DOOM DOON DOOR DOOS DOPA DOPE DOPS DOPY DORB DORE DORK DORM DORP DORR DORS DORT DORY DOSE DOSH DOSS DOST DOTE DOTH DOTS DOTY DOUC DOUK DOUM DOUN DOUP DOUR DOUT DOUX DOVE DOWD DOWF DOWL DOWN DOWP DOWS DOWT DOXY DOYS DOZE DOZY DRAB DRAC DRAD DRAG DRAM DRAP DRAT DRAW DRAY DREE DREG DREK DREW DREY DRIB DRIP DROP DROW DRUB DRUG DRUM DRYS DSOS DUAD DUAL DUAN DUAR DUBS DUCE DUCI DUCK DUCT DUDE DUDS DUED DUEL DUES DUET DUFF DUGS DUIT DUKA DUKE DULE DULL DULY DUMA DUMB DUMP DUNE DUNG DUNK DUNS DUNT DUOS DUPE DUPS DURA DURE DURN DURO DURR DUSH DUSK DUST DUTY DWAM DYAD DYED DYER DYES DYKE DYNE DZHO DZOS
EACH EALE EANS EARD EARL EARN EARS EASE EAST EASY EATH EATS EAUS EAUX EAVE EBBS EBON ECAD ECCE ECCO ECHE ECHO ECHT ECOD ECOS ECRU ECUS EDDO EDDY EDGE EDGY EDHS EDIT EECH EELS EELY EERY EEVN EFFS EFTS EGAD EGAL EGER EGGS EGGY EGIS EGMA EGOS EHED EIDE EIKS EILD EINA EINE EISH EKED EKES EKKA ELAN ELDS ELFS ELHI ELKS ELLS ELMS ELMY ELSE ELTS EMES EMEU EMIC EMIR EMIT EMMA EMMY EMOS EMPT EMUS EMYD EMYS ENDS ENES ENEW ENGS ENOL ENOW ENUF ENVY EOAN EONS EORL EPEE EPHA EPIC EPOS ERAS ERED ERES EREV ERGO ERGS ERHU ERIC ERKS ERNE ERNS EROS ERRS ERST ERUV ESES ESKY ESNE ESPY ESSE ESTS ETAS ETAT ETCH ETEN ETHE ETHS ETIC ETNA ETUI EUGE EUGH EUKS EUOI EURO EVEN EVER EVES EVET EVIL EVOE EVOS EWER EWES EWKS EWTS EXAM EXEC EXED EXES EXIT EXON EXPO EXUL EYAS EYED EYEN EYER EYES EYNE EYOT EYRA EYRE EYRY
FAAN FAAS FABS FACE FACT FADE FADO FADS FADY FAFF FAGS FAHS FAIK FAIL FAIN FAIR FAIX FAKE FALL FALX FAME FAND FANE FANG FANK FANO FANS FARD FARE FARL FARM FARO FARS FART FASH FAST FATE FATS FAUN FAUR FAUT FAUX FAVA FAVE FAWN FAWS FAYS FAZE FEAL FEAR FEAT FECK FEDS FEEB FEED FEEL FEEN FEER FEES FEET FEGS FEHM FEHS FEIS FELL FELT FEME FEMS FEND FENI FENS FENT FEOD FERE FERM FERN FESS FEST FETA FETE FETS FETT FEUD FEUS FEWS FEYS FIAR FIAT FIBS FICE FICO FIDO FIDS FIEF FIER FIFE FIGO FIGS FIKE FIKY FILA FILE FILL FILM FILO FILS FIND FINE FINI FINK FINO FINS FIQH FIRE FIRK FIRM FIRN FIRS FISC FISH FISK FIST FITS FITT FIVE FIXT FIZZ FLAB FLAG FLAK FLAM FLAN FLAP FLAT FLAW FLAX FLAY FLEA FLED FLEE FLEG FLEW FLEX FLEY FLIC FLIM FLIP FLIR FLIT FLIX FLOB FLOC FLOE FLOG FLOP FLOR FLOW FLOX FLUB FLUE FLUS FLUX FOAL FOAM FOBS FOCI FOEN FOES FOGS FOGY FOHN FOID FOIL FOIN FOLD FOLK FOND FONE FONS FONT FOOD FOOL FOOT FOPS FORA FORB FORD FORE FORK FORM FORT FOSS FOUD FOUL FOUR FOUS FOWL FOXY FOYS FOZY FRAB FRAE FRAG FRAP FRAS FRAT FRAU FRAY FREE FRET FRIB FRIG FRIS FRIT FRIZ FROE FROG FROM FROS FROW FRUG FUBS FUCI FUCK FUDS FUEL FUFF FUGS FUGU FUJI FULL FUME FUMS FUMY FUND FUNG FUNK FUNS FURL FURR FURS FURY FUSC FUSE FUSS FUST FUTZ FUZE FUZZ FYCE FYKE FYLE FYRD
GABS GABY GADE GADI GADS GAED GAEN GAES GAFF GAGA GAGE GAGS GAID GAIN GAIR GAIT GAJO GAKS GALA GALE GALL GALS GAMA GAMB GAME GAMP GAMS GAMY GANE GANG GANS GANT GAOL GAPE GAPO GAPS GAPY GARB GARE GARI GARS GART GASH GASP GAST GATE GATH GATS GAUD GAUM GAUN GAUP GAUR GAUS GAVE GAWD GAWK GAWP GAWS GAYS GAZE GAZY GEAL GEAN GEAR GEAT GECK GEDS GEED GEEK GEEP GEES GEEZ GEIT GELD GELS GELT GEMS GENA GENE GENS GENT GENU GEOS GERE GERM GERS GERT GEST GETA GETS GEUM GHAT GHEE GHIS GIBE GIBS GIDS GIED GIEN GIES GIFT GIGA GIGS GILA GILD GILL GILT GIMP GING GINK GINN GINS GIOS GIPS GIRD GIRL GIRN GIRO GIRR GIRT GISM GIST GITE GITS GIVE GIZZ GJUS GLAD GLAM GLED GLEE GLEG GLEI GLEN GLEY GLIA GLIB GLID GLIM GLIT GLOB GLOM GLOP GLOW GLUE GLUG GLUM GLUT GNAR GNAT GNAW GNOW GNUS GOAD GOAF GOAL GOAS GOAT GOBI GOBO GOBS GOBY GODS GOEL GOER GOES GOEY GOFF GOGO GOJI GOLD GOLE GOLF GOLP GONE GONG GONK GONS GOOD GOOF GOOG GOOK GOOL GOON GOOP GOOR GOOS GORA GORE GORI GORM GORP GORY GOSH GOSS GOTH GOUK GOUT GOVS GOWD GOWF GOWK GOWL GOWN GOYS GRAB GRAD GRAM GRAN GRAT GRAV GRAY GREE GREN GREW GREX GREY GRID GRIG GRIM GRIN GRIP GRIS GRIT GROG GROK GROT GROW GRRL GRUB GRUE GRUM GUAN GUAR GUBS GUCK GUDE GUES GUFF GUGA GUID GULA GULE GULF GULL GULP GULS GULY GUMP GUMS GUNG GUNK GUNS GUPS GURL GURN GURS GURU GUSH GUST GUTS GUVS GUYS GYAL GYBE GYMP GYMS GYNY GYPS GYRE GYRI GYRO GYTE GYVE
HAAF HAAR HABU HACK HADE HADJ HADS HAED HAEM HAEN HAES HAET HAFF HAFT HAGG HAGS HAHA HAHS HAIK HAIL HAIN HAIR HAJI HAJJ HAKA HAKE HAKU HALE HALF HALL HALM HALO HALT HAME HAMS HAND HANG HANK HANT HAOS HAPS HAPU HARD HARE HARK HARL HARM HARN HARO HARP HART HASH HASK HASP HASS HAST HATE HATH HATS HAUD HAUF HAUL HAUT HAVE HAWK HAWM HAWS HAYS HAZE HAZY HEAD HEAL HEAP HEAR HEAT HEBE HECH HECK HEED HEEL HEFT HEHS HEID HEIL HEIR HELD HELE HELL HELM HELO HELP HEME HEMP HEMS HEND HENS HENT HEPS HEPT HERB HERD HERE HERL HERM HERN HERO HERS HERY HESP HEST HETE HETH HETS HEWN HEWS HEYS HICK HIDE HIED HIES HIGH HIKE HILA HILD HILI HILL HILT HIMS HIND HING HINS HINT HIOI HIPS HIPT HIRE HISH HISN HISS HIST HITS HIVE HIYA HIZZ HOAR HOAS HOAX HOBO HOBS HOCK HODS HOED HOER HOES HOGG HOGH HOGS HOHA HOHS HOIK HOKA HOKE HOKI HOLD HOLE HOLK HOLM HOLP HOLS HOLT HOLY HOMA HOME HOMO HOMS HOMY HOND HONE HONG HONK HONS HOOD HOOF HOOK HOON HOOP HOOR HOOT HOPE HOPS HORA HORE HORI HORN HORS HOSE HOSS HOST HOTE HOTS HOUF HOUR HOUT HOVE HOWE HOWF HOWK HOWL HOWS HOYA HOYS HUBS HUCK HUED HUER HUES HUFF HUGE HUGS HUGY HUHU HUIA HUIC HUIS HULA HULE HULK HULL HUMA HUMF HUMP HUMS HUNG HUNH HUNK HUNS HUNT HUPS HURL HURT HUSH HUSK HUSO HUSS HUTS HWAN HWYL HYED HYEN HYES HYKE HYLA HYLE HYMN HYPE HYPO HYPS HYTE
IAMB IBEX IBIS ICED ICER ICES ICHS ICKY ICON IDEA IDEE IDEM IDES IDLE IDLY IDOL IDYL IFFY IGAD IGGS IGLU IKAN IKAT IKON ILEA ILEX ILIA ILKA ILKS ILLS ILLY IMAM IMID IMMY IMPI IMPS INBY INCH INFO INGO INGS INIA INKS INKY INLY INNS INRO INTI INTO IONS IOTA IRED IRES IRID IRIS IRKS IRON ISBA ISIT ISLE ISMS ISNA ISOS ITAS ITCH ITEM IURE IWIS IXIA IZAR
JAAP JABS JACK JADE JAFA JAGA JAGG JAGS JAIL JAKE JAKS JAMB JAMS JANE JANN JAPE JAPS JARK JARL JARP JARS JASP JASS JASY JATO JAUK JAUP JAVA JAWS JAXY JAYS JAZY JAZZ JEAN JEAT JEDI JEED JEEL JEEP JEER JEES JEEZ JEFE JEFF JEHU JELL JEON JERK JESS JEST JETE JETS JEUX JEWS JIAO JIBB JIBE JIBS JIFF JIGS JILL JILT JIMP JINK JINN JINS JINX JIRD JISM JIVE JIVY JIZZ JOBE JOBS JOCK JOCO JOES JOEY JOGS JOHN JOIN JOKE JOKY JOLE JOLL JOLS JOLT JOMO JONG JOOK JORS JOSH JOSS JOTA JOTS JOUK JOUR JOWL JOWS JOYS JUBA JUBE JUCO JUDO JUDS JUDY JUGA JUGS JUJU JUKE JUKU JUMP JUNK JUPE JURA JURE JURY JUST JUTE JUTS JUVE JYNX
KAAL KAAS KABS KACK KADE KADI KAED KAES KAFS KAGO KAGU KAID KAIE KAIF KAIK KAIL KAIM KAIN KAIS KAKA KAKI KAKS KALE KALI KAMA KAME KAMI KANA KANE KANG KANS KANT KAON KAPA KAPH KARA KARK KARN KARO KART KATA KATI KATS KAVA KAWA KAWS KAYO KAYS KAZI KBAR KEAS KEBS KECK KEDS KEEF KEEK KEEL KEEN KEEP KEET KEFS KEGS KEIR KEKS KELL KELP KELT KEMB KEMP KENO KENS KENT KEPI KEPS KEPT KERB KERF KERN KERO KESH KEST KETA KETE KETO KETS KEWL KEYS KHAF KHAN KHAT KHET KHIS KHOR KHUD KIBE KICK KIDS KIEF KIER KIEV KIFF KIFS KIKE KILD KILL KILN KILO KILP KILT KINA KIND KINE KING KINK KINO KINS KIPE KIPP KIPS KIRK KIRN KIRS KISH KISS KIST KITE KITH KITS KIVA KIWI KLAP KLIK KNAG KNAP KNAR KNEE KNEW KNIT KNOB KNOP KNOT KNOW KNUB KNUR KNUT KOAN KOAP KOAS KOBO KOBS KOEL KOFF KOHA KOHL KOIS KOJI KOKA KOLA KOLO KOND KONK KONS KOOK KOPH KOPS KORA KORE KORO KORS KORU KOSS KOTO KOWS KRAB KRIS KSAR KUDO KUDU KUEH KUES KUFI KUIA KUKU KULA KUNA KUNE KURI KURU KUTA KUTI KUTU KUZU KVAS KYAK KYAR KYAT KYBO KYES KYLE KYND KYNE KYPE KYTE KYUS
LABS LACE LACK LACS LACY LADE LADS LADY LAER LAGS LAHS LAIC LAID LAIK LAIN LAIR LAKE LAKH LAKY LALL LAMA LAMB LAME LAMP LAMS LANA LAND LANE LANG LANK LANT LANX LAPS LARD LARE LARI LARK LARN LARS LASE LASH LASS LAST LATE LATH LATI LATS LATU LAUD LAUF LAVA LAVE LAVS LAWK LAWN LAWS LAYS LAZE LAZO LAZY LEAD LEAF LEAK LEAL LEAM LEAN LEAP LEAR LEAS LEAT LECH LEED LEEK LEEP LEER LEES LEET LEFT LEGS LEHR LEIR LEIS LEKE LEKS LEKU LEME LEND LENG LENO LENS LENT LEPS LEPT LERE LERP LESS LEST LETS LEUD LEVA LEVE LEVO LEVY LEWD LEYS LEZZ LIAR LIAS LIBS LICE LICH LICK LIDO LIDS LIED LIEF LIEN LIER LIES LIEU LIFE LIFT LIGS LIKE LILL LILO LILT LILY LIMA LIMB LIME LIMN LIMO LIMP LIMY LIND LINE LING LINK LINN LINO LINS LINT LINY LION LIPA LIPE LIPO LIPS LIRA LIRE LIRI LIRK LISK LISP LIST LITE LITH LITS LITU LIVE LOAD LOAF LOAM LOAN LOBE LOBI LOBO LOBS LOCA LOCH LOCI LOCK LOCO LODE LODS LOFT LOGE LOGO LOGS LOGY LOID LOIN LOIR LOKE LOLL LOMA LOME LONE LONG LOOF LOOK LOOM LOON LOOP LOOR LOOS LOOT LOPE LOPS LORD LORE LORN LORY LOSE LOSH LOSS LOST LOTA LOTE LOTH LOTI LOTO LOTS LOUD LOUN LOUP LOUR LOUS LOUT LOVE LOWE LOWN LOWP LOWS LOWT LOYS LUAU LUBE LUCE LUCK LUDE LUDO LUDS LUES LUFF LUGE LUGS LUIT LUKE LULL LULU LUMA LUMP LUMS LUNA LUNE LUNG LUNK LUNT LUNY LURE LURK LURS LUSH LUSK LUST LUTE LUTZ LUVS LUXE LWEI LYAM LYCH LYES LYME LYMS LYNE LYNX LYRA LYRE LYSE LYTE
MAAR MAAS MABE MACE MACH MACK MACS MADE MADS MAES MAGE MAGG MAGI MAGS MAHA MAID MAIK MAIL MAIM MAIN MAIR MAKE MAKI MAKO MAKS MALA MALE MALI MALL MALM MALS MALT MAMA MAMS MANA MAND MANE MANG MANI MANO MANS MANY MAPS MARA MARC MARD MARE MARG MARK MARL MARM MARS MART MARY MASA MASE MASH MASK MASS MAST MASU MATE MATH MATS MATT MATY MAUD MAUL MAUN MAUT MAWK MAWN MAWR MAWS MAXI MAYA MAYO MAYS MAZE MAZY MEAD MEAL MEAN MEAT MECK MEDS MEED MEEK MEER MEES MEET MEFF MEGA MEGS MEIN MELA MELD MELL MELS MELT MEME MEMO MEMS MEND MENE MENG MENO MENT MENU MEOU MEOW MERC MERE MERI MERK MERL MESA MESE MESH MESS META METE METH METS MEUS MEVE MEWL MEWS MEZE MEZZ MHOS MIBS MICA MICE MICH MICK MICO MICS MIDI MIDS MIEN MIFF MIGG MIGS MIHA MIHI MIKE MILD MILE MILF MILK MILL MILO MILS MILT MIME MINA MIND MINE MING MINI MINK MINO MINT MINX MINY MIPS MIRE MIRI MIRK MIRO MIRS MIRV MIRY MISE MISO MISS MIST MITE MITT MITY MIXT MIXY MIZZ MNAS MOAI MOAN MOAS MOAT MOBE MOBS MOBY MOCH MOCK MOCS MODE MODI MODS MOER MOES MOFO MOGS MOHR MOIL MOIT MOJO MOKE MOKI MOKO MOLA MOLD MOLE MOLL MOLS MOLT MOLY MOME MOMI MOMS MONA MONG MONK MONO MONS MONY MOOD MOOI MOOK MOOL MOON MOOP MOOR MOOS MOOT MOPE MOPS MOPY MORA MORE MORN MORS MORT MOSE MOSH MOSK MOSS MOST MOTE MOTH MOTI MOTS MOTT MOTU MOUE MOUP MOUS MOVE MOWA MOWN MOWS MOXA MOYA MOYL MOYS MOZE MOZO MOZZ MUCH MUCK MUDS MUFF MUGG MUGS MUID MUIL MUIR MULE MULL MUMM MUMP MUMS MUMU MUNG MUNI MUNS MUNT MUON MURA MURE MURK MURL MURR MUSE MUSH MUSK MUSO MUSS MUST MUTE MUTI MUTS MUTT MUZZ MWAH MYAL MYCS MYNA MYTH MYXO MZEE
NAAM NAAN NABE NABK NABS NACH NADA NADS NAFF NAGA NAGS NAIF NAIK NAIL NAIN NALA NAME NAMS NAMU NANA NANE NANG NANS NAOI NAOS NAPA NAPE NAPS NARC NARD NARE NARK NARY NATS NAVE NAVY NAYS NAZE NAZI NEAL NEAP NEAR NEAT NEBS NECK NEDS NEED NEEM NEEP NEFS NEGS NEIF NEKS NEMA NEMN NENE NEON NEPS NERD NERK NESH NESS NEST NETE NETS NETT NEUK NEUM NEVE NEVI NEWS NEWT NEXT NGAI NIBS NICE NICK NIDE NIDI NIDS NIED NIEF NIES NIFE NIFF NIGH NILL NILS NIMB NIMS NINE NIPA NIPS NIRL NISH NISI NITE NITS NIXE NIXY NOAH NOBS NOCK NODE NODI NODS NOEL NOES NOGG NOGS NOIL NOIR NOLE NOLL NOLO NOMA NOME NOMS NONA NONE NONG NONI NOOB NOOK NOON NOOP NOPE NORI NORK NORM NOSE NOSH NOSY NOTA NOTE NOTT NOUL NOUN NOUP NOUS NOUT NOVA NOWL NOWN NOWS NOWT NOWY NOYS NUBS NUDE NUFF NUKE NULL NUMB NUNS NURD NURL NURR NURS NUTS NYAS NYED NYES
OAFS OAKS OAKY OARS OARY OAST OATH OATS OATY OBAS OBES OBEY OBIA OBIS OBIT OBOE OBOL OBOS OCAS OCCY OCHE OCTA ODAH ODAL ODAS ODDS ODEA ODES ODIC ODOR ODSO ODYL OFAY OFFS OFFY OGAM OGEE OGLE OGRE OHED OHIA OHMS OIKS OILS OILY OINK OINT OKAS OKAY OKEH OKES OKRA OKTA OLDE OLDS OLDY OLEA OLEO OLES OLID OLIO OLLA OLMS OLPE OMBU OMEN OMER OMIT OMOV ONCE ONER ONES ONIE ONLY ONOS ONST ONTO ONUS ONYX OOFS OOFY OOHS OOMS OONS OONT OOPS OOSE OOSY OOTS OOZE OOZY OPAH OPAL OPED OPEN OPES OPPO OPTS OPUS ORAD ORAL ORBS ORBY ORCA ORCS ORDO ORDS ORES ORFE ORFS ORGY ORLE ORRA ORTS ORYX ORZO OSAR OSES OSSA OTIC OTTO OUCH OUDS OUKS OULD OULK OUMA OUPA OUPH OUPS OURN OURS OUST OUTS OUZO OVAL OVEL OVEN OVER OVUM OWED OWER OWES OWLS OWLY OWNS OWRE OWSE OWTS OXEN OXER OXES OXID OXIM OYER OYES OYEZ PAAL
PAAN PACA PACE PACK PACO PACS PACT PACY PADI PADS PAGE PAHS PAID PAIK PAIL PAIN PAIR PAIS PALE PALL PALM PALP PALS PALY PAMS PAND PANE PANG PANS PANT PAPA PAPE PAPS PARA PARD PARE PARK PARP PARR PARS PART PASE PASH PASS PAST PATE PATH PATS PATU PATY PAUA PAUL PAVE PAVS PAWA PAWK PAWL PAWN PAWS PAYS PEAG PEAK PEAL PEAN PEAR PEAS PEAT PEBA PECH PECK PECS PEDS PEED PEEK PEEL PEEN PEEP PEER PEES PEGH PEGS PEHS PEIN PEKE PELA PELE PELF PELL PELS PELT PEND PENE PENI PENK PENS PENT PEON PEPO PEPS PERE PERI PERK PERM PERN PERP PERT PERV PESO PEST PETS PEWS PFFT PFUI PHAT PHEW PHIS PHIZ PHOH PHON PHOS PHOT PHUT PIAL PIAN PIAS PICA PICE PICK PICS PIED PIER PIES PIET PIGS PIKA PIKE PIKI PILA PILE PILI PILL PILY PIMA PIMP PINA PINE PING PINK PINS PINT PINY PION PIOY PIPA PIPE PIPI PIPS PIPY PIRL PIRN PIRS PISE PISH PISO PISS PITA PITH PITS PITY PIUM PIXY PIZE PLAN PLAP PLAT PLAY PLEA PLEB PLED PLEW PLEX PLIE PLIM PLOD PLOP PLOT PLOW PLOY PLUE PLUG PLUM PLUS POAS POCK POCO PODS POEM POEP POET POGO POGY POIS POKE POKY POLE POLK POLL POLO POLS POLT POLY POME POMO POMP POMS POND PONE PONG PONK PONS PONT PONY POOD POOF POOH POOK POOL POON POOP POOR POOS POOT POPE POPS PORE PORK PORN PORT PORY POSE POSH POSS POST POSY POTE POTS POTT POUF POUK POUR POUT POWN POWS POXY POZZ PRAD PRAM PRAO PRAT PRAU PRAY PREE PREM PREP PREX PREY PREZ PRIG PRIM PROA PROB PROD PROF PROG PROM PROO PROP PROS PROW PRUH PRYS PSIS PSST PTUI PUBE PUBS PUCE PUCK PUDS PUDU PUER PUFF PUGH PUGS PUHA PUIR PUJA PUKA PUKE PUKU PUKY PULA PULE PULI PULK PULL PULP PULS PULU PULY PUMA PUMP PUMY PUNA PUNG PUNK PUNS PUNT PUNY PUPA PUPS PUPU PURE PURI PURL PURR PURS PUSH PUSS PUTS PUTT PUTZ PUYS PYAS PYAT PYES PYET PYIC PYIN PYNE PYOT PYRE PYRO QADI
QAID QATS QINS QOPH QUAD QUAG QUAI QUAT QUAY QUEP QUEY QUID QUIM QUIN QUIP QUIT QUIZ QUOD QUOP
RABI RACA RACE RACH RACK RACY RADE RADS RAFF RAFT RAGA RAGE RAGG RAGI RAGS RAGU RAHS RAIA RAID RAIK RAIL RAIN RAIS RAIT RAJA RAKE RAKI RAKU RALE RAMI RAMP RAMS RANA RAND RANG RANI RANK RANT RAPE RAPS RAPT RARE RARK RASE RASH RASP RAST RATA RATE RATH RATO RATS RATU RAUN RAVE RAVS RAWN RAWS RAYA RAYS RAZE RAZZ READ REAK REAL REAM REAN REAP REAR REBS RECK RECS REDD REDE REDO REDS REED REEF REEK REEL REEN REES REFS REFT REGO REGS REHS REIF REIK REIN REIS REKE RELY REMS REND RENK RENS RENT RENY REOS REPO REPP REPS RESH REST RETE RETS REVS REWS RHEA RHOS RHUS RIAD RIAL RIAS RIBA RIBS RICE RICH RICK RICY RIDE RIDS RIEL RIEM RIFE RIFF RIFS RIFT RIGG RIGS RILE RILL RIMA RIME RIMS RIMU RIMY RIND RINE RING RINK RINS RIOT RIPE RIPP RIPS RIPT RISE RISK RISP RITE RITS RITT RITZ RIVA RIVE RIVO RIZA ROAD ROAM ROAN ROAR ROBE ROBS ROCH ROCK ROCS RODE RODS ROED ROES ROIL ROIN ROJI ROKE ROKS ROKY ROLE ROLF ROLL ROMA ROMP ROMS RONE RONG RONT RONZ ROOD ROOF ROOK ROOM ROON ROOP ROOS ROOT ROPE ROPY RORE RORT RORY ROSE ROST ROSY ROTA ROTE ROTI ROTL ROTO ROTS ROUE ROUL ROUM ROUP ROUT ROUX ROVE ROWS ROWT RUBE RUBS RUBY RUCK RUCS RUDD RUDE RUDS RUED RUER RUES RUFF RUGA RUGS RUIN RUKH RULE RULY RUME RUMP RUMS RUND RUNE RUNG RUNS RUNT RURP RURU RUSA RUSE RUSH RUSK RUST RUTH RUTS RYAL RYAS RYES RYFE RYKE RYND RYOT RYPE
SAAG SABE SABS SACK SACS SADE SADI SADO SADS SAFE SAFT SAGA SAGE SAGO SAGS SAGY SAIC SAID SAIL SAIM SAIN SAIR SAIS SAKE SAKI SALE SALL SALP SALS SALT SAMA SAME SAMP SAMS SAND SANE SANG SANK SANS SANT SAPS SARD SARI SARK SARS SASH SASS SATE SATI SAUL SAUT SAVE SAVS SAWN SAWS SAXE SAYS SCAB SCAD SCAG SCAM SCAN SCAR SCAT SCAW SCOG SCOP SCOT SCOW SCRY SCUD SCUG SCUL SCUM SCUP SCUR SCUT SCYE SEAL SEAM SEAN SEAR SEAS SEAT SECH SECO SECS SECT SEED SEEK SEEL SEEM SEEN SEEP SEER SEES SEGO SEGS SEIF SEIK SEIL SEIR SEIS SEKT SELD SELE SELF SELL SELS SEME SEMI SENA SEND SENE SENS SENT SEPS SEPT SERA SERE SERF SERK SERR SERS SESE SESH SESS SETA SETS SETT SEWN SEWS SEXT SEXY SEYS SHAD SHAG SHAH SHAM SHAN SHAT SHAW SHAY SHEA SHED SHES SHET SHEW SHIM SHIN SHIP SHIR SHIT SHIV SHMO SHOD SHOE SHOG SHOO SHOP SHOT SHOW SHRI SHUL SHUN SHUT SHWA SIAL SIBB SIBS SICE SICH SICK SICS SIDA SIDE SIDH SIEN SIES SIFT SIGH SIGN SIJO SIKA SIKE SILD SILE SILK SILL SILO SILT SIMA SIMI SIMP SIMS SIND SINE SING SINH SINK SINS SIPE SIPS SIRE SIRI SIRS SISS SIST SITE SITH SITS SITZ SIZE SIZY SJOE SKAG SKAS SKAT SKAW SKEE SKEG SKEN SKEO SKEP SKER SKET SKEW SKID SKIM SKIN SKIO SKIP SKIS SKIT SKOL SKRY SKUA SKUG SKYF SKYR SLAB SLAE SLAG SLAM SLAP SLAT SLAW SLAY SLEB SLED SLEE SLEW SLEY SLID SLIM SLIP SLIT SLOB SLOE SLOG SLOP SLOT SLOW SLUB SLUE SLUG SLUM SLUR SLUT SMEE SMEW SMIR SMIT SMOG SMUG SMUR SMUT SNAB SNAG SNAP SNAR SNAW SNEB SNED SNEE SNIB SNIG SNIP SNIT SNOB SNOD SNOG SNOT SNOW SNUB SNUG SNYE SOAK SOAP SOAR SOBA SOBS SOCA SOCK SOCS SODA SODS SOFA SOFT SOGS SOHO SOHS SOIL SOJA SOKE SOLA SOLD SOLE SOLI SOLO SOLS SOMA SOME SOMS SOMY SONE SONG SONS SOOK SOOL SOOM SOON SOOP SOOT SOPH SOPS SORA SORB SORD SORE SORI SORN SORT SOSS SOTH SOTS SOUK SOUL SOUM SOUP SOUR SOUS SOUT SOVS SOWF SOWL SOWM SOWN SOWP SOWS SOYA SOYS SPAE SPAG SPAM SPAN SPAR SPAS SPAT SPAW SPAY SPAZ SPEC SPED SPEK SPET SPEW SPIC SPIE SPIF SPIK SPIM SPIN SPIT SPIV SPOD SPOT SPRY SPUD SPUE SPUG SPUN SPUR SRIS STAB STAG STAP STAR STAT STAW STAY STED STEM STEN STEP STET STEW STEY STIE STIM STIR STOA STOB STOP STOT STOW STUB STUD STUM STUN STYE SUBA SUBS SUCH SUCK SUDD SUDS SUED SUER SUES SUET SUGH SUGO SUGS SUID SUIT SUKH SUKS SULK SULU SUMO SUMP SUMS SUMY SUNG SUNI SUNK SUNN SUNS SUPE SUPS SUQS SURA SURD SURE SURF SUSS SUSU SWAB SWAD SWAG SWAM SWAN SWAP SWAT SWAY SWEE SWEY SWIG SWIM SWIZ SWOB SWOP SWOT SWUM SYBO SYCE SYED SYEN SYES SYKE SYLI SYNC SYND SYNE SYPE SYPH
TAAL TABI TABS TABU TACE TACH TACK TACO TACT TADS TAED TAEL TAES TAGS TAHA TAHR TAIG TAIL TAIN TAIS TAIT TAKA TAKE TAKI TAKS TAKY TALA TALC TALE TALI TALK TALL TAME TAMP TAMS TANA TANE TANG TANH TANK TANS TAOS TAPA TAPE TAPS TAPU TARA TARE TARN TARO TARP TARS TART TASH TASK TASS TATE TATH TATS TATT TATU TAUS TAUT TAVA TAVS TAWA TAWS TAWT TAXA TAXI TAYS TEAD TEAK TEAL TEAM TEAR TEAS TEAT TECH TECS TEDS TEDY TEED TEEK TEEL TEEM TEEN TEER TEES TEFF TEFS TEGG TEGS TEGU TEHR TEIL TEIN TELA TELD TELE TELL TELS TELT TEME TEMP TEMS TEND TENE TENS TENT TEPA TERF TERM TERN TEST TETE TETH TETS TEWS TEXT THAE THAN THAR THAT THAW THEE THEM THEN THEW THEY THIG THIN THIO THIR THIS THON THOU THRO THRU THUD THUG THUS TIAN TIAR TICE TICH TICK TICS TIDE TIDS TIDY TIED TIER TIES TIFF TIFT TIGE TIGS TIKA TIKE TIKI TIKS TILE TILL TILS TILT TIME TINA TIND TINE TING TINK TINS TINT TINY TIPI TIPS TIPT TIRE TIRL TIRO TIRR TITE TITI TITS TIVY TIZZ TOAD TOBY TOCK TOCO TOCS TODS TODY TOEA TOED TOES TOEY TOFF TOFT TOFU TOGA TOGE TOGS TOHO TOIL TOIT TOKE TOKO TOLA TOLD TOLE TOLL TOLT TOLU TOMB TOME TOMO TOMS TONE TONG TONK TONS TONY TOOK TOOL TOOM TOON TOOT TOPE TOPH TOPI TOPO TOPS TORA TORC TORE TORI TORN TORO TORR TORS TORT TORY TOSA TOSE TOSH TOSS TOST TOTE TOTS TOUK TOUN TOUR TOUT TOWN TOWS TOWT TOWY TOYO TOYS TOZE TRAD TRAM TRAP TRAT TRAY TREE TREF TREK TRES TRET TREW TREY TREZ TRIE TRIG TRIM TRIN TRIO TRIP TROD TROG TRON TROP TROT TROW TROY TRUE TRUG TRYE TRYP TSAR TSKS TUAN TUBA TUBE TUBS TUCK TUFA TUFF TUFT TUGS TUIS TULE TUMP TUMS TUNA TUND TUNE TUNG TUNS TUNY TUPS TURD TURF TURK TURM TURN TUSH TUSK TUTS TUTU TUZZ TWAE TWAL TWAS TWAT TWAY TWEE TWIG TWIN TWIT TWOS TYDE TYED TYEE TYER TYES TYGS TYIN TYKE TYMP TYND TYNE TYPE TYPO TYPP TYPY TYRE TYRO TYTE TZAR
UDAL UDON UDOS UEYS UFOS UGHS UGLY UKES ULAN ULES ULEX ULNA ULUS ULVA UMBO UMMA UMPH UMPS UMPY UMRA UMUS UNAI UNAU UNBE UNCE UNCI UNCO UNDE UNDO UNDY UNIS UNIT UNTO UPAS UPBY UPDO UPGO UPON UPSY UPTA URAO URBS URDE URDS URDY UREA URES URGE URIC URNS URPS URSA URUS URVA USED USER USES UTAS UTES UTIS UTUS UVAE UVAS UVEA
VACS VADE VAES VAGI VAGS VAIL VAIN VAIR VALE VALI VAMP VANE VANG VANS VANT VARA VARE VARS VARY VASA VASE VAST VATS VATU VAUS VAUT VAVS VAWS VEAL VEEP VEER VEES VEGA VEGO VEHM VEIL VEIN VELA VELD VELE VELL VENA VEND VENT VERA VERB VERD VERS VERT VERY VEST VETO VETS VEXT VIAE VIAL VIAS VIBE VIBS VICE VIDE VIDS VIED VIER VIES VIEW VIGA VIGS VILD VILE VILL VIMS VINA VINE VINO VINS VINT VINY VIOL VIRE VIRL VISA VISE VITA VITE VIVA VIVE VIVO VIZY VLEI VLOG VOAR VOES VOID VOIP VOLA VOLE VOLK VOLS VOLT VORS VOTE VOWS VRIL VROT VROU VROW VUGG VUGH VUGS VULN VUMS
WAAC WABS WACK WADD WADE WADI WADS WADT WADY WAES WAFF WAFT WAGE WAGS WAID WAIF WAIL WAIN WAIR WAIS WAIT WAKA WAKE WAKF WALD WALE WALI WALK WALL WALY WAME WAND WANE WANG WANK WANS WANT WANY WAPS WAQF WARB WARD WARE WARK WARM WARN WARP WARS WART WARY WASE WASH WASP WAST WATE WATS WATT WAUK WAUL WAUR WAVE WAVY WAWA WAWE WAWL WAWS WAXY WAYS WEAK WEAL WEAN WEAR WEBS WEDS WEED WEEK WEEL WEEM WEEN WEEP WEER WEES WEET WEFT WEID WEIL WEIR WEKA WELD WELK WELL WELS WELT WEMB WEMS WENA WEND WENS WENT WEPT WERE WERO WERT WEST WETA WETS WEXE WEYS WHAE WHAM WHAP WHAT WHEE WHEN WHET WHEW WHEY WHID WHIG WHIM WHIN WHIO WHIP WHIR WHIT WHIZ WHOA WHOM WHOP WHOT WHOW WHUP WHYS WICE WICH WICK WIDE WIEL WIFE WIGS WIKI WILD WILE WILI WILL WILT WILY WIMP WIND WINE WING WINK WINN WINO WINS WINY WIPE WIRE WIRY WISE WISH WISP WISS WIST WITE WITH WITS WIVE WOAD WOCK WOES WOFS WOGS WOKE WOKS WOLD WOLF WOMB WONK WONS WONT WOOD WOOF WOOL WOON WOOS WOOT WOPS WORD WORE WORK WORM WORN WORT WOST WOTS WOVE WOWF WOWS WRAP WREN WRIT WUDS WUDU WULL WUSS WYCH WYES WYLE WYND WYNN WYNS WYTE
XRAY XYST
YAAR YABA YACK YADS YAFF YAGI YAGS YAHS YAKS YALD YALE YAMS YANG YANK YAPP YAPS YARD YARE YARK YARN YARR YATE YAUD YAUP YAWL YAWN YAWP YAWS YAWY YAYS YBET YEAD YEAH YEAN YEAR YEAS YEBO YECH YEDE YEED YEGG YELD YELK YELL YELM YELP YELT YENS YEPS YERD YERK YESK YEST YETI YETT YEUK YEVE YEWS YGOE YIDS YIKE YILL YINS YIPE YIPS YIRD YIRK YIRR YITE YLEM YLKE YMPE YMPT YOBS YOCK YODE YODH YODS YOGA YOGH YOGI YOKE YOKS YOLD YOLK YOMP YOND YONI YONT YOOF YOOP YORE YORK YORP YOUK YOUR YOUS YOWE YOWL YOWS YUAN YUCA YUCH YUCK YUFT YUGA YUGS YUKE YUKO YUKS YUKY YULE YUMP YUNX YUPS YURT YUTZ YUZU YWIS
ZACK ZAGS ZANY ZAPS ZARF ZARI ZATI ZEAL ZEAS ZEBU ZEDS ZEES ZEIN ZEKS ZELS ZEPS ZERK ZERO ZEST ZETA ZEZE ZHOS ZIFF ZIGS ZILA ZILL ZIMB ZINC ZINE ZING ZINS ZIPS ZITE ZITI ZITS ZIZZ ZOBO ZOBU ZOEA ZOIC ZOLS ZONA ZONE ZONK ZOOM ZOON ZOOS ZOOT ZORI ZOUK ZULU ZUPA ZURF ZYGA ZYME ZZZS
submitted by OB8O to 4CHR [link] [comments]


2020.08.12 00:50 EricMeehan Lets Encrypt - Certificate generated, but I still get "Connection is not private" in browsers.

Hello fellow webhosters,
I am building a website for my business and am having a bit of a problem getting https to work. I've generated the keys using Lets Encrypt using the following commands on Ubuntu Server:
 $DOMAIN=homodeus.us $sudo certbot certonly --manual -d *.$DOMAIN -d $DOMAIN --agree-tos --manual-public-ip-logging-ok --preferred-challenges dns-01 --server https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory --register-unsafely-without-email --rsa-key-size 4096 
After adding the appropriate DNS TXT records, the certificates were generated.
$ certbot certificates Saving debug log to /valog/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Found the following certs: Certificate Name: homodeus.us Domains: *.homodeus.us homodeus.us Expiry Date: 2020-11-09 21:06:40+00:00 (VALID: 89 days) Certificate Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/homodeus.us/fullchain.pem Private Key Path: /etc/letsencrypt/live/homodeus.us/privkey.pem - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
I edited the Apache default-ssl.conf to read:
SSLCertificateFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/homodeus.us/cert.pem SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/homodeus.us/privkey.pem SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/letsencrypt/live/homodeus.us/chain.pem 
The domain is registered through Google, and forwards to my public IP address, which takes the public port 2358 and forwards it to port 443 on the server.
I get the "This Connection Is Not Private" message when viewing in Safari, and examining the details shows that the certificate being used by the browser is issued by Let's Encrypt Authority X3.
What is going on here? It seems fairly unprofessional to have this message appear for everyone who would visit my website...
-- SOLVED --
A simple solution, as indicated by omgwtfbbq69. The certificate referred to my domain, not my IP. When I set up the domain, I just forwarded it to my IP. This simply redirected the user to my IP address, which did not have the certificate. I had to do a more thorough setup as described in this post. Thanks for all the help everyone! And a special thanks to khattak007, who graciously offered help in a PM - very kind of you!
submitted by EricMeehan to webhosting [link] [comments]


2020.07.31 23:37 hkalodner Scaling Reddit Community Points with Arbitrum Rollup: a piece of cake

Scaling Reddit Community Points with Arbitrum Rollup: a piece of cake
https://preview.redd.it/b80c05tnb9e51.jpg?width=2550&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=850282c1a3962466ed44f73886dae1c8872d0f31
Submitted for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off
Baked by the pastry chefs at Offchain Labs
Please send questions or comments to [[email protected] ](mailto:[email protected])
1. Overview
We're excited to submit Arbitrum Rollup for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off. Arbitrum Rollup is the only Ethereum scaling solution that supports arbitrary smart contracts without compromising on Ethereum's security or adding points of centralization. For Reddit, this means that Arbitrum can not only scale the minting and transfer of Community Points, but it can foster a creative ecosystem built around Reddit Community Points enabling points to be used in a wide variety of third party applications. That's right -- you can have your cake and eat it too!
Arbitrum Rollup isn't just Ethereum-style. Its Layer 2 transactions are byte-for-byte identical to Ethereum, which means Ethereum users can continue to use their existing addresses and wallets, and Ethereum developers can continue to use their favorite toolchains and development environments out-of-the-box with Arbitrum. Coupling Arbitrum’s tooling-compatibility with its trustless asset interoperability, Reddit not only can scale but can onboard the entire Ethereum community at no cost by giving them the same experience they already know and love (well, certainly know).
To benchmark how Arbitrum can scale Reddit Community Points, we launched the Reddit contracts on an Arbitrum Rollup chain. Since Arbitrum provides full Solidity support, we didn't have to rewrite the Reddit contracts or try to mimic their functionality using an unfamiliar paradigm. Nope, none of that. We launched the Reddit contracts unmodified on Arbitrum Rollup complete with support for minting and distributing points. Like every Arbitrum Rollup chain, the chain included a bridge interface in which users can transfer Community Points or any other asset between the L1 and L2 chains. Arbitrum Rollup chains also support dynamic contract loading, which would allow third-party developers to launch custom ecosystem apps that integrate with Community Points on the very same chain that runs the Reddit contracts.
1.1 Why Ethereum
Perhaps the most exciting benefit of distributing Community Points using a blockchain is the ability to seamlessly port points to other applications and use them in a wide variety of contexts. Applications may include simple transfers such as a restaurant that allows Redditors to spend points on drinks. Or it may include complex smart contracts -- such as placing Community Points as a wager for a multiparty game or as collateral in a financial contract.
The common denominator between all of the fun uses of Reddit points is that it needs a thriving ecosystem of both users and developers, and the Ethereum blockchain is perhaps the only smart contract platform with significant adoption today. While many Layer 1 blockchains boast lower cost or higher throughput than the Ethereum blockchain, more often than not, these attributes mask the reality of little usage, weaker security, or both.
Perhaps another platform with significant usage will rise in the future. But today, Ethereum captures the mindshare of the blockchain community, and for Community Points to provide the most utility, the Ethereum blockchain is the natural choice.
1.2 Why Arbitrum
While Ethereum's ecosystem is unmatched, the reality is that fees are high and capacity is too low to support the scale of Reddit Community Points. Enter Arbitrum. Arbitrum Rollup provides all of the ecosystem benefits of Ethereum, but with orders of magnitude more capacity and at a fraction of the cost of native Ethereum smart contracts. And most of all, we don't change the experience from users. They continue to use the same wallets, addresses, languages, and tools.
Arbitrum Rollup is not the only solution that can scale payments, but it is the only developed solution that can scale both payments and arbitrary smart contracts trustlessly, which means that third party users can build highly scalable add-on apps that can be used without withdrawing money from the Rollup chain. If you believe that Reddit users will want to use their Community Points in smart contracts--and we believe they will--then it makes the most sense to choose a single scaling solution that can support the entire ecosystem, eliminating friction for users.
We view being able to run smart contracts in the same scaling solution as fundamentally critical since if there's significant demand in running smart contracts from Reddit's ecosystem, this would be a load on Ethereum and would itself require a scaling solution. Moreover, having different scaling solutions for the minting/distribution/spending of points and for third party apps would be burdensome for users as they'd have to constantly shuffle their Points back and forth.
2. Arbitrum at a glance
Arbitrum Rollup has a unique value proposition as it offers a combination of features that no other scaling solution achieves. Here we highlight its core attributes.
Decentralized. Arbitrum Rollup is as decentralized as Ethereum. Unlike some other Layer 2 scaling projects, Arbitrum Rollup doesn't have any centralized components or centralized operators who can censor users or delay transactions. Even in non-custodial systems, centralized components provide a risk as the operators are generally incentivized to increase their profit by extracting rent from users often in ways that severely degrade user experience. Even if centralized operators are altruistic, centralized components are subject to hacking, coercion, and potential liability.
Massive Scaling. Arbitrum achieves order of magnitude scaling over Ethereum's L1 smart contracts. Our software currently supports 453 transactions-per-second for basic transactions (at 1616 Ethereum gas per tx). We have a lot of room left to optimize (e.g. aggregating signatures), and over the next several months capacity will increase significantly. As described in detail below, Arbitrum can easily support and surpass Reddit's anticipated initial load, and its capacity will continue to improve as Reddit's capacity needs grow.
Low cost. The cost of running Arbitrum Rollup is quite low compared to L1 Ethereum and other scaling solutions such as those based on zero-knowledge proofs. Layer 2 fees are low, fixed, and predictable and should not be overly burdensome for Reddit to cover. Nobody needs to use special equipment or high-end machines. Arbitrum requires validators, which is a permissionless role that can be run on any reasonable on-line machine. Although anybody can act as a validator, in order to protect against a “tragedy of the commons” and make sure reputable validators are participating, we support a notion of “invited validators” that are compensated for their costs. In general, users pay (low) fees to cover the invited validators’ costs, but we imagine that Reddit may cover this cost for its users. See more on the costs and validator options below.
Ethereum Developer Experience. Not only does Arbitrum support EVM smart contracts, but the developer experience is identical to that of L1 Ethereum contracts and fully compatible with Ethereum tooling. Developers can port existing Solidity apps or write new ones using their favorite and familiar toolchains (e.g. Truffle, Buidler). There are no new languages or coding paradigms to learn.
Ethereum wallet compatibility. Just as in Ethereum, Arbitrum users need only hold keys, but do not have to store any coin history or additional data to protect or access their funds. Since Arbitrum transactions are semantically identical to Ethereum L1 transactions, existing Ethereum users can use their existing Ethereum keys with their existing wallet software such as Metamask.
Token interoperability. Users can easily transfer their ETH, ERC-20 and ERC-721 tokens between Ethereum and the Arbitrum Rollup chain. As we explain in detail below, it is possible to mint tokens in L2 that can subsequently be withdrawn and recognized by the L1 token contract.
Fast finality. Transactions complete with the same finality time as Ethereum L1 (and it's possible to get faster finality guarantees by trading away trust assumptions; see the Arbitrum Rollup whitepaper for details).
Non-custodial. Arbitrum Rollup is a non-custodial scaling solution, so users control their funds/points and neither Reddit nor anyone else can ever access or revoke points held by users.
Censorship Resistant. Since it's completely decentralized, and the Arbitrum protocol guarantees progress trustlessly, Arbitrum Rollup is just as censorship-proof as Ethereum.
Block explorer. The Arbitrum Rollup block explorer allows users to view and analyze transactions on the Rollup chain.
Limitations
Although this is a bake-off, we're not going to sugar coat anything. Arbitrum Rollup, like any Optimistic Rollup protocol, does have one limitation, and that's the delay on withdrawals.
As for the concrete length of the delay, we've done a good deal of internal modeling and have blogged about this as well. Our current modeling suggests a 3-hour delay is sufficient (but as discussed in the linked post there is a tradeoff space between the length of the challenge period and the size of the validators’ deposit).
Note that this doesn't mean that the chain is delayed for three hours. Arbitrum Rollup supports pipelining of execution, which means that validators can keep building new states even while previous ones are “in the pipeline” for confirmation. As the challenge delays expire for each update, a new state will be confirmed (read more about this here).
So activity and progress on the chain are not delayed by the challenge period. The only thing that's delayed is the consummation of withdrawals. Recall though that any single honest validator knows immediately (at the speed of L1 finality) which state updates are correct and can guarantee that they will eventually be confirmed, so once a valid withdrawal has been requested on-chain, every honest party knows that the withdrawal will definitely happen. There's a natural place here for a liquidity market in which a validator (or someone who trusts a validator) can provide withdrawal loans for a small interest fee. This is a no-risk business for them as they know which withdrawals will be confirmed (and can force their confirmation trustlessly no matter what anyone else does) but are just waiting for on-chain finality.
3. The recipe: How Arbitrum Rollup works
For a description of the technical components of Arbitrum Rollup and how they interact to create a highly scalable protocol with a developer experience that is identical to Ethereum, please refer to the following documents:
Arbitrum Rollup Whitepaper
Arbitrum academic paper (describes a previous version of Arbitrum)
4. Developer docs and APIs
For full details about how to set up and interact with an Arbitrum Rollup chain or validator, please refer to our developer docs, which can be found at https://developer.offchainlabs.com/.
Note that the Arbitrum version described on that site is older and will soon be replaced by the version we are entering in Reddit Bake-Off, which is still undergoing internal testing before public release.
5. Who are the validators?
As with any Layer 2 protocol, advancing the protocol correctly requires at least one validator (sometimes called block producers) that is honest and available. A natural question is: who are the validators?
Recall that the validator set for an Arbitrum chain is open and permissionless; anyone can start or stop validating at will. (A useful analogy is to full nodes on an L1 chain.) But we understand that even though anyone can participate, Reddit may want to guarantee that highly reputable nodes are validating their chain. Reddit may choose to validate the chain themselves and/or hire third-party validators.To this end, we have begun building a marketplace for validator-for-hire services so that dapp developers can outsource validation services to reputable nodes with high up-time. We've announced a partnership in which Chainlink nodes will provide Arbitrum validation services, and we expect to announce more partnerships shortly with other blockchain infrastructure providers.
Although there is no requirement that validators are paid, Arbitrum’s economic model tracks validators’ costs (e.g. amount of computation and storage) and can charge small fees on user transactions, using a gas-type system, to cover those costs. Alternatively, a single party such as Reddit can agree to cover the costs of invited validators.
6. Reddit Contract Support
Since Arbitrum contracts and transactions are byte-for-byte compatible with Ethereum, supporting the Reddit contracts is as simple as launching them on an Arbitrum chain.
Minting. Arbitrum Rollup supports hybrid L1/L2 tokens which can be minted in L2 and then withdrawn onto the L1. An L1 contract at address A can make a special call to the EthBridge which deploys a "buddy contract" to the same address A on an Arbitrum chain. Since it's deployed at the same address, users can know that the L2 contract is the authorized "buddy" of the L1 contract on the Arbitrum chain.
For minting, the L1 contract is a standard ERC-20 contract which mints and burns tokens when requested by the L2 contract. It is paired with an ERC-20 contract in L2 which mints tokens based on whatever programmer provided minting facility is desired and burns tokens when they are withdrawn from the rollup chain. Given this base infrastructure, Arbitrum can support any smart contract based method for minting tokens in L2, and indeed we directly support Reddit's signature/claim based minting in L2.
Batch minting. What's better than a mint cookie? A whole batch! In addition to supporting Reddit’s current minting/claiming scheme, we built a second minting design, which we believe outperforms the signature/claim system in many scenarios.
In the current system, Reddit periodically issues signed statements to users, who then take those statements to the blockchain to claim their tokens. An alternative approach would have Reddit directly submit the list of users/amounts to the blockchain and distribute the tokens to the users without the signature/claim process.
To optimize the cost efficiency of this approach, we designed an application-specific compression scheme to minimize the size of the batch distribution list. We analyzed the data from Reddit's previous distributions and found that the data is highly compressible since token amounts are small and repeated, and addresses appear multiple times. Our function groups transactions by size, and replaces previously-seen addresses with a shorter index value. We wrote client code to compress the data, wrote a Solidity decompressing function, and integrated that function into Reddit’s contract running on Arbitrum.
When we ran the compression function on the previous Reddit distribution data, we found that we could compress batched minting data down to to 11.8 bytes per minting event (averaged over a 6-month trace of Reddit’s historical token grants)compared with roughly 174 bytes of on-chain data needed for the signature claim approach to minting (roughly 43 for an RLP-encoded null transaction + 65 for Reddit's signature + 65 for the user's signature + roughly 8 for the number of Points) .
The relative benefit of the two approaches with respect to on-chain call data cost depends on the percentage of users that will actually claim their tokens on chain. With the above figures, batch minting will be cheaper if roughly 5% of users redeem their claims. We stress that our compression scheme is not Arbitrum-specific and would be beneficial in any general-purpose smart contract platform.
8. Benchmarks and costs
In this section, we give the full costs of operating the Reddit contracts on an Arbitrum Rollup chain including the L1 gas costs for the Rollup chain, the costs of computation and storage for the L2 validators as well as the capital lockup requirements for staking.
Arbitrum Rollup is still on testnet, so we did not run mainnet benchmarks. Instead, we measured the L1 gas cost and L2 workload for Reddit operations on Arbitrum and calculated the total cost assuming current Ethereum gas prices. As noted below in detail, our measurements do not assume that Arbitrum is consuming the entire capacity of Ethereum. We will present the details of our model now, but for full transparency you can also play around with it yourself and adjust the parameters, by copying the spreadsheet found here.
Our cost model is based on measurements of Reddit’s contracts, running unmodified (except for the addition of a batch minting function) on Arbitrum Rollup on top of Ethereum.
On the distribution of transactions and frequency of assertions. Reddit's instructions specify the following minimum parameters that submissions should support:
Over a 5 day period, your scaling PoC should be able to handle:
  • 100,000 point claims (minting & distributing points)
  • 25,000 subscriptions
  • 75,000 one-off points burning
  • 100,000 transfers
We provide the full costs of operating an Arbitrum Rollup chain with this usage under the assumption that tokens are minted or granted to users in batches, but other transactions are uniformly distributed over the 5 day period. Unlike some other submissions, we do not make unrealistic assumptions that all operations can be submitted in enormous batches. We assume that batch minting is done in batches that use only a few percent on an L1 block’s gas, and that other operations come in evenly over time and are submitted in batches, with one batch every five minutes to keep latency reasonable. (Users are probably already waiting for L1 finality, which takes at least that long to achieve.)
We note that assuming that there are only 300,000 transactions that arrive uniformly over the 5 day period will make our benchmark numbers lower, but we believe that this will reflect the true cost of running the system. To see why, say that batches are submitted every five minutes (20 L1 blocks) and there's a fixed overhead of c bytes of calldata per batch, the cost of which will get amortized over all transactions executed in that batch. Assume that each individual transaction adds a marginal cost of t. Lastly assume the capacity of the scaling system is high enough that it can support all of Reddit's 300,000 transactions within a single 20-block batch (i.e. that there is more than c + 300,000*t byes of calldata available in 20 blocks).
Consider what happens if c, the per-batch overhead, is large (which it is in some systems, but not in Arbitrum). In the scenario that transactions actually arrive at the system's capacity and each batch is full, then c gets amortized over 300,000 transactions. But if we assume that the system is not running at capacity--and only receives 300,000 transactions arriving uniformly over 5 days-- then each 20-block assertion will contain about 200 transactions, and thus each transaction will pay a nontrivial cost due to c.
We are aware that other proposals presented scaling numbers assuming that 300,000 transactions arrived at maximum capacity and was executed in a single mega-transaction, but according to our estimates, for at least one such report, this led to a reported gas price that was 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than it would have been assuming uniform arrival. We make more realistic batching assumptions, and we believe Arbitrum compares well when batch sizes are realistic.
Our model. Our cost model includes several sources of cost:
  • L1 gas costs: This is the cost of posting transactions as calldata on the L1 chain, as well as the overhead associated with each batch of transactions, and the L1 cost of settling transactions in the Arbitrum protocol.
  • Validator’s staking costs: In normal operation, one validator will need to be staked. The stake is assumed to be 0.2% of the total value of the chain (which is assumed to be $1 per user who is eligible to claim points). The cost of staking is the interest that could be earned on the money if it were not staked.
  • Validator computation and storage: Every validator must do computation to track the chain’s processing of transactions, and must maintain storage to keep track of the contracts’ EVM storage. The cost of computation and storage are estimated based on measurements, with the dollar cost of resources based on Amazon Web Services pricing.
It’s clear from our modeling that the predominant cost is for L1 calldata. This will probably be true for any plausible rollup-based system.
Our model also shows that Arbitrum can scale to workloads much larger than Reddit’s nominal workload, without exhausting L1 or L2 resources. The scaling bottleneck will ultimately be calldata on the L1 chain. We believe that cost could be reduced substantially if necessary by clever encoding of data. (In our design any compression / decompression of L2 transaction calldata would be done by client software and L2 programs, never by an L1 contract.)
9. Status of Arbitrum Rollup
Arbitrum Rollup is live on Ethereum testnet. All of the code written to date including everything included in the Reddit demo is open source and permissively licensed under the Apache V2 license. The first testnet version of Arbitrum Rollup was released on testnet in February. Our current internal version, which we used to benchmark the Reddit contracts, will be released soon and will be a major upgrade.
Both the Arbitrum design as well as the implementation are heavily audited by independent third parties. The Arbitrum academic paper was published at USENIX Security, a top-tier peer-reviewed academic venue. For the Arbitrum software, we have engaged Trail of Bits for a security audit, which is currently ongoing, and we are committed to have a clean report before launching on Ethereum mainnet.
10. Reddit Universe Arbitrum Rollup Chain
The benchmarks described in this document were all measured using the latest internal build of our software. When we release the new software upgrade publicly we will launch a Reddit Universe Arbitrum Rollup chain as a public demo, which will contain the Reddit contracts as well as a Uniswap instance and a Connext Hub, demonstrating how Community Points can be integrated into third party apps. We will also allow members of the public to dynamically launch ecosystem contracts. We at Offchain Labs will cover the validating costs for the Reddit Universe public demo.
If the folks at Reddit would like to evaluate our software prior to our public demo, please email us at [email protected] and we'd be more than happy to provide early access.
11. Even more scaling: Arbitrum Sidechains
Rollups are an excellent approach to scaling, and we are excited about Arbitrum Rollup which far surpasses Reddit's scaling needs. But looking forward to Reddit's eventual goal of supporting hundreds of millions of users, there will likely come a time when Reddit needs more scaling than any Rollup protocol can provide.
While Rollups greatly reduce costs, they don't break the linear barrier. That is, all transactions have an on-chain footprint (because all calldata must be posted on-chain), albeit a far smaller one than on native Ethereum, and the L1 limitations end up being the bottleneck for capacity and cost. Since Ethereum has limited capacity, this linear use of on-chain resources means that costs will eventually increase superlinearly with traffic.
The good news is that we at Offchain Labs have a solution in our roadmap that can satisfy this extreme-scaling setting as well: Arbitrum AnyTrust Sidechains. Arbitrum Sidechains are similar to Arbitrum Rollup, but deviate in that they name a permissioned set of validators. When a chain’s validators agree off-chain, they can greatly reduce the on-chain footprint of the protocol and require almost no data to be put on-chain. When validators can't reach unanimous agreement off-chain, the protocol reverts to Arbitrum Rollup. Technically, Arbitrum Sidechains can be viewed as a hybrid between state channels and Rollup, switching back and forth as necessary, and combining the performance and cost that state channels can achieve in the optimistic case, with the robustness of Rollup in other cases. The core technical challenge is how to switch seamlessly between modes and how to guarantee that security is maintained throughout.
Arbitrum Sidechains break through this linear barrier, while still maintaining a high level of security and decentralization. Arbitrum Sidechains provide the AnyTrust guarantee, which says that as long as any one validator is honest and available (even if you don't know which one will be), the L2 chain is guaranteed to execute correctly according to its code and guaranteed to make progress. Unlike in a state channel, offchain progress does not require unanimous consent, and liveness is preserved as long as there is a single honest validator.
Note that the trust model for Arbitrum Sidechains is much stronger than for typical BFT-style chains which introduce a consensus "voting" protocols among a small permissioned group of validators. BFT-based protocols require a supermajority (more than 2/3) of validators to agree. In Arbitrum Sidechains, by contrast, all you need is a single honest validator to achieve guaranteed correctness and progress. Notice that in Arbitrum adding validators strictly increases security since the AnyTrust guarantee provides correctness as long as any one validator is honest and available. By contrast, in BFT-style protocols, adding nodes can be dangerous as a coalition of dishonest nodes can break the protocol.
Like Arbitrum Rollup, the developer and user experiences for Arbitrum Sidechains will be identical to that of Ethereum. Reddit would be able to choose a large and diverse set of validators, and all that they would need to guarantee to break through the scaling barrier is that a single one of them will remain honest.
We hope to have Arbitrum Sidechains in production in early 2021, and thus when Reddit reaches the scale that surpasses the capacity of Rollups, Arbitrum Sidechains will be waiting and ready to help.
While the idea to switch between channels and Rollup to get the best of both worlds is conceptually simple, getting the details right and making sure that the switch does not introduce any attack vectors is highly non-trivial and has been the subject of years of our research (indeed, we were working on this design for years before the term Rollup was even coined).
12. How Arbitrum compares
We include a comparison to several other categories as well as specific projects when appropriate. and explain why we believe that Arbitrum is best suited for Reddit's purposes. We focus our attention on other Ethereum projects.
Payment only Rollups. Compared to Arbitrum Rollup, ZK-Rollups and other Rollups that only support token transfers have several disadvantages:
  • As outlined throughout the proposal, we believe that the entire draw of Ethereum is in its rich smart contracts support which is simply not achievable with today's zero-knowledge proof technology. Indeed, scaling with a ZK-Rollup will add friction to the deployment of smart contracts that interact with Community Points as users will have to withdraw their coins from the ZK-Rollup and transfer them to a smart contract system (like Arbitrum). The community will be best served if Reddit builds on a platform that has built-in, frictionless smart-contract support.
  • All other Rollup protocols of which we are aware employ a centralized operator. While it's true that users retain custody of their coins, the centralized operator can often profit from censoring, reordering, or delaying transactions. A common misconception is that since they're non-custodial protocols, a centralized sequencer does not pose a risk but this is incorrect as the sequencer can wreak havoc or shake down users for side payments without directly stealing funds.
  • Sidechain type protocols can eliminate some of these issues, but they are not trustless. Instead, they require trust in some quorum of a committee, often requiring two-third of the committee to be honest, compared to rollup protocols like Arbitrum that require only a single honest party. In addition, not all sidechain type protocols have committees that are diverse, or even non-centralized, in practice.
  • Plasma-style protocols have a centralized operator and do not support general smart contracts.
13. Concluding Remarks
While it's ultimately up to the judges’ palate, we believe that Arbitrum Rollup is the bakeoff choice that Reddit kneads. We far surpass Reddit's specified workload requirement at present, have much room to optimize Arbitrum Rollup in the near term, and have a clear path to get Reddit to hundreds of millions of users. Furthermore, we are the only project that gives developers and users the identical interface as the Ethereum blockchain and is fully interoperable and tooling-compatible, and we do this all without any new trust assumptions or centralized components.
But no matter how the cookie crumbles, we're glad to have participated in this bake-off and we thank you for your consideration.
About Offchain Labs
Offchain Labs, Inc. is a venture-funded New York company that spun out of Princeton University research, and is building the Arbitrum platform to usher in the next generation of scalable, interoperable, and compatible smart contracts. Offchain Labs is backed by Pantera Capital, Compound VC, Coinbase Ventures, and others.
Leadership Team
Ed Felten
Ed Felten is Co-founder and Chief Scientist at Offchain Labs. He is on leave from Princeton University, where he is the Robert E. Kahn Professor of Computer Science and Public Affairs. From 2015 to 2017 he served at the White House as Deputy United States Chief Technology Officer and senior advisor to the President. He is an ACM Fellow and member of the National Academy of Engineering. Outside of work, he is an avid runner, cook, and L.A. Dodgers fan.
Steven Goldfeder
Steven Goldfeder is Co-founder and Chief Executive Officer at Offchain Labs. He holds a PhD from Princeton University, where he worked at the intersection of cryptography and cryptocurrencies including threshold cryptography, zero-knowledge proof systems, and post-quantum signatures. He is a co-author of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies, the leading textbook on cryptocurrencies, and he has previously worked at Google and Microsoft Research, where he co-invented the Picnic signature algorithm. When not working, you can find Steven spending time with his family, taking a nature walk, or twisting balloons.
Harry Kalodner
Harry Kalodner is Co-founder and Chief Technology Officer at Offchain Labs where he leads the engineering team. Before the company he attended Princeton as a Ph.D candidate where his research explored economics, anonymity, and incentive compatibility of cryptocurrencies, and he also has worked at Apple. When not up at 3:00am writing code, Harry occasionally sleeps.
submitted by hkalodner to ethereum [link] [comments]


2020.07.27 15:30 luijohnson1234 Cobalt-Chromium Powder Market Demand & SWOT Analysis By 2025: Key Players Arcam, CarTech, VDM Metals

Our analysts monitoring the situation around the Globe explain that after COVID-19 crisis the market will generate remunerative prospects for producers. The goal of the report is to provide a further illustration of the current scenario, economic slowdown and effect of COVID-19 on the industry as a whole.
A New Research on the Global Cobalt-Chromium Powder Market was conducted across a variety of industries in various regions to produce more than 150 page reports. This study is a perfect blend of qualitative and quantifiable information highlighting key market developments, industry and competitors' challenges in gap analysis and new opportunities and may be trending in the Cobalt-Chromium Powder market. Some are part of the coverage and are the core and emerging players being profiled Arcam, CarTech, VDM Metals, Kulzer, EOS, SLM, Dentaurum, 3DMT, AMC Powders, ACME.
Get Cobalt-Chromium Powder Market Free Sample PDF Copy Here @: www.statsandreports.com/request-sample/344509-global-united-states-european-union-and-china-cobalt-chromium-powder-market-research-report-2019-2025
Import and export policies that can have an immediate impact on the global Cobalt-Chromium Powder market. This study includes EXIM * related chapters for all relevant companies dealing with the Cobalt-Chromium Powder market and related profiles and provides valuable data in terms of finances, product portfolio, investment planning and marketing and business strategy. The study is a collection of primary and secondary data that contains valuable information from the major suppliers of the market. The forecast is based on data from 2014 to the present date and forecasts until 2025, Easy to analyze other graphs and tables People looking for key industry data in easily accessible documents.
Quantifiable data: • Market Data Breakdown by Key Geography, Type & Application / End-User • By type (past and forecast) • Cobalt-Chromium Powder Market-Specific Applications Sales and Growth Rates (Historical & Forecast) • Cobalt-Chromium Powder revenue and growth rate by market (history and forecast) • Cobalt-Chromium Powder market size and growth rate, application and type (past and forecast) • Sales revenue, volume and Y-O-Y growth rate (base year) of Cobalt-Chromium Powder market,
Enquire for Discount in Report @ www.statsandreports.com/check-discount/344509-global-united-states-european-union-and-china-cobalt-chromium-powder-market-research-report-2019-2025
Key Research: The main sources are industry experts from the global Cobalt-Chromium Powder industry, including management organizations, processing organizations, and analytical services providers that address the value chain of industry organizations. We interviewed all major sources to collect and certify qualitative and quantitative information and to determine future prospects. Through interviews in the industry experts industry, such as CEO, vice president, marketing director, technology and innovation director, founder and key executives of key core companies and institutions in major biomass waste containers around the world, And
Secondary Research: Secondary research studies critical information about the industrial value chain, core pool of people, and applications. We also helped market segmentation based on the industry's lowest level of industry, geographical markets and key developments in market and technology-driven core development.
Browse for Full Report at @: www.statsandreports.com/report/344509-global-united-states-european-union-and-china-cobalt-chromium-powder-market-research-report-2019-2025
Qualitative data: Includes factors affecting or influencing market dynamics and market growth. To list some names in related sections
• Industry overview • Global Cobalt-Chromium Powder market growth driver • Global Cobalt-Chromium Powder market trend • Incarceration • Cobalt-Chromium Powder Market Opportunity • Market entropy ** [specially designed to emphasize market aggressiveness] • Fungal analysis • Porter Five Army Model
Customized specific regional and country-level reports for the following areas.
• North America: United States, Canada, and Mexico. • South & Central America: Argentina, Chile, and Brazil. • Middle East & Africa: Saudi Arabia, UAE, Turkey, Egypt and South Africa. • Europe: UK, France, Italy, Germany, Spain, and Russia. • Asia-Pacific: India, China, Japan, South Korea, Indonesia, Singapore, and Australia.
Buy Full Copy Global Cobalt-Chromium Powder Report [email protected] www.statsandreports.com/placeorder?report=344509-global-united-states-european-union-and-china-cobalt-chromium-powder-market-research-report-2019-2025
** The market is valuated based on the weighted average selling price (WASP) and includes the taxes applicable to the manufacturer. All currency conversions used in the creation of this report were calculated using a certain annual average rate of 2019 currency conversion.
The research provides answers to the following key questions:
1) Who are the key Top Competitors in the Global Cobalt-Chromium Powder Market?
Following are list of players : Arcam, CarTech, VDM Metals, Kulzer, EOS, SLM, Dentaurum, 3DMT, AMC Powders, ACME
2) What is the expected Market size and growth rate of the Cobalt-Chromium Powder market for the period 2019-2025?
** The Values marked with XX is confidential data. To know more about CAGR figures fill in your information so that our business development executive can get in touch with you.
3) Which Are The Main Key Regions Cover in Reports?
Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, consumption, revenue (million USD), and market share and growth rate of Cobalt-Chromium Powder in these regions, from 2019 to 2025 (forecast), covering North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific etc
4) Can I include additional segmentation / market segmentation?
Yes. Additional granularity / market segmentation may be included depending on data availability and difficulty of survey. However, you should investigate and share detailed requirements before final confirmation to the customer.
Some of the Points cover in Global Cobalt-Chromium Powder Market Research Report is:
Chapter 1: Overview of Global Cobalt-Chromium Powder Market (2014-2025) • Definition • Specifications • Classification • Applications • Regions
Chapter 2: Market Competition by Players/Suppliers 2014 and 2018 • Manufacturing Cost Structure • Raw Material and Suppliers • Manufacturing Process • Industry Chain Structure
Chapter 3: Sales (Volume) and Revenue (Value) by Region (2014-2018) • Sales • Revenue and market share
Chapter 4, 5 and 6: Global Cobalt-Chromium Powder Market by Type, Application & Players/Suppliers Profiles (2014-2018) • Market Share by Type & Application • Growth Rate by Type & Application • Drivers and Opportunities • Company Basic Information
Continued........
Note: Regional Breakdown & Sectional purchase Available We provide Pie chats Best Customize Reports As per Requirements.
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submitted by luijohnson1234 to u/luijohnson1234 [link] [comments]


2020.07.24 17:24 pommymac CertCache - Docker based SSL/TLS certificate server

Hello lovely people of docker.
I have create a SSL/TLS certificate server that can generate certificates with Certbot/Let's Encrypt and also serve certs from third parties.
I started it last year but decided to finish it off these last couple months during lockdown downtime.
It's called CertCache
These are it's main features:
To give you taster of operator experience - you can specify certificates in docker-compose.yml - eg. like this:
yaml services … container_name: certcache image: 93million/certcache certcache: volumes: - ./certcache/certs/:/certcache/certs/ environment: CERTCACHE_CERTS: - domains: - example.com - *.example.com - *.test.example.com certName: web
To access the certs from a container like Nginx, you would do this:
services … nginx: container_name: nginx image: nginx volumes: - ./certcache/certs/:/etc/certcache/certs/
Certs and keys would be made available in the Nginx container at /etc/certcache/certs/web/fullchain.pem and /etc/certcache/certs/web/privkey.pem.
Certs are fetched and installed on docker-compose up - and kept up to date
Usage steps in the readme - https://github.com/93million/certcache/blob/masteREADME.md
Docker Hub: https://hub.docker.com/93million/certcache GitHub: https://github.com/93million/certcache
Currently it only supports generation using Certbot but I can add support for acme.sh if there is demand.
Happy Friday everyone! Pommy
Edit: thank you for the gold kind Redditor (also edit yaml syntax)
submitted by pommymac to docker [link] [comments]


2020.07.18 08:20 CPAyeLmao Back-of-the-envelope DD on why Berkshire should be priced at least 20 - 30% higher

Disclaimer: I'm kind of retarded and am down half a bottle of Jack. Make your own investment decisions
Alright boys and girls, I'm going to try to keep this (relatively) brief, at least compared to some of the other DD on here. I'm not going to write about the history of the company because I'm assuming that anyone with a modicum of investment sense is already plenty familiar with Berkshire Hathaway. If you've never heard of this company, or are a MrBeast subscriber, please stop reading now - this is not for you.
Ok, so this write-up started with a thought I had while in the shower: If you were to breakdown Berkshire into each of its income-generating components, what would be the fair market value? As a second disclaimer, I think there was another post on here a week or two ago, but I don't have it saved and thus haven't linked it.
To do this, I copied BRK's quarterly statement of operations from their latest 10-Q and converted it into TTM format (Q1-20 + YE-19 - Q1-19). I then grouped it by operating segment to derive operating net income applicable to each business segment. If you're unfamiliar with Berkshire - the company, not daddy Buffett - their two main operating segments are Insurance (and other, $200bn TTM revenue) and Railroad, Utilities, and Energy ($41bn TTM revenue). When grouped by operating segment, we can see that Insurance netted ~$18bn in net income over the TTM, and railroad activities netted ~$8bn. I didn't include non-operating items like derivative contract gains(losses) or income tax expense, because honestly I don't give a fuck about those. If you're really concerned, just shave like 10% off the valuation. Go crazy.
Now, I don't know know shit about insurance or railroads. But I do know a little thing about multiples (emphasis on little; like I said, I'm kind of retarded). So rather than creating a super intricate financial model with lots of terminal values and shit, I compared the net earnings of each operating line to the average P/E ratios of other publicly traded companies operating in those industries to derive an estimated fair market value for each component (See Comps, 10-year data downloaded from StockRow).
As you can see in the attached image, multiplying BRK Insurance by the average TTM insurance industry P/E ratio (8.69) yields an estimated FMV of ~$157bn. Similarly, adjusting net earnings by the average TTM P/E for railroads yields a FMV of ~$189bn (ignore the 10-year figures, we'll get to that later). In aggregate, this means that the fair value of BRK's operating segments based on TTM data is approximately $347bn, or 75% of their current market cap.
The remainder, I believe can be attributed to BRK's investment portfolio. Something that caught my eye, and sparked the idea for this DD, was this. Notice the divergence in each company's share price? Me too. Granted, I wouldn't expect BRK to be perfectly correlated to AAPL, but I would expect their beta to be at least somewhat similar considering BRK's AAPL holdings alone are worth 20% of it's own market cap. But I digress.
In this back-of-the-envelope model, I attribute the remainder of BRK's FMV to its investment portfolio. To estimate the investment portfolio's FMV, I created a little reconciliation (which you can view here) to recalculate current FMV values of investments based on share-counts disclosed in BRK's most recent 13-F filing. Investment values as of the report date are recalculated, but these are just for comparison. I used May 1st (the date the report was filed with the SEC) as the base period to capture value at issuance, but this is extremely optimistic. The investments were more than likely valued in early-mid March and thus are likely to be severely understated on the final report.
Recomputing the current FMV of investments (shares x closing price as of today) for BRK's 6 largest holdings - AAPL, AXP, BAC, KO, WFC, and KHC - gives us coverage of approximately 76% of BRK's total investment portfolio. For the remaining 24%, I just relied on the numbers reported on their Form 13-F since I'm a lazy POS and all about that copy/paste life. You can view them here.
Ok, so now we have FMV estimates for BRK's operating segments and investment portfolio - now it's time to see how much the company is worth (as a warning, I'm ignoring the conversion of market cap for BRK-A & BRK-B shareholders. Honestly I just don't give enough of a shit to recalculate it. % upside numbers are based on market cap though, not share price, so it is captured).
TldConclusion; Berkshire should be worth between $230 - $260 without even considering factors beyond operations or the investment portfolio. Anything below $210 is severely under-priced IMO. Berkshire was trading well above a $500bn market cap before the pandemic, and I doubt their core operations were impacted nearly enough to warrant the lower valuation. Hell, their operating segments are under-priced compared to peers using current multiples. The only justifiable reason I could see for them having a lower valuation would be if Warren enters into any more "risky" derivative contracts or buys any more shitty O&G companies, but frankly I don't (or at least hope it won't) see that happening.
Tldr;Tldr; BRK-B $250 01/21/22 LEAPs are looking mighty cheap.
Edit: In my drunken stupor I accidentally mis-keyed a couple numbers. Projected share price is actually higher now.
submitted by CPAyeLmao to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]


2020.07.18 00:29 bigbear0083 Wall Street Week Ahead for the trading week beginning July 20th, 2020

Good Friday evening to all of you here on StockMarket. I hope everyone on this sub made out pretty nicely in the market this past week, and is ready for the new trading week ahead.
Here is everything you need to know to get you ready for the trading week beginning July 20th, 2020.

Earnings and fiscal debate could be catalysts for stocks in the week ahead - (Source)

Investors are braced for a barrage of earnings news, and the debate in Washington around the next stimulus package may also be an important catalyst for markets since it has implications for the economic recovery.
Big tech names, including Microsoft, Intel, Twitter and IBM, are among companies reporting in the week ahead, as is high-flying Tesla. Blue chips Coca-Cola, Verizon, American Express and Travelers are also among the dozens of major companies releasing results.
Congress returns from its break and should pick up the pace of negotiations towards a new fiscal stimulus package, which is expected to address aid for state and local governments and enhanced unemployment benefits. Unemployment benefits, including the $600 additional weekly payment now going to millions, is expected to be a hot topic of discussion, as the benefit ends on July 31.
There are just a few items of note on the economic calendar, including existing home sales on Wednesday, unemployment claims data on Thursday and new home sales on Friday.
The spread of the coronavirus will also be closely monitored, as well as any signs of medical progress. The Lancet medical journal is expected to release early stage human trial data Monday on a vaccine developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca.

‘Push and pull’ in market

Investors also will be watching the market’s own dynamics in the week ahead. There is tension within the market between the bubbly run-up of tech and momentum names on the Nasdaq, and the broader market, or S&P 500, which is basically still flat for the year. The Nasdaq is up 17% year to date, but in the past week lagged other indices, turning in a loss, while the Dow and S&P 500 were both higher.
The Nasdaq’s outperformance came to an abrupt end Monday, and it has lagged since then. In dramatic fashion, the index rose sharply to new highs, with many big tech names and Tesla also hitting highs. Within the same session, there was a massive reversal in the index and in tech and momentum names, and they closed sharply lower.
Now strategists are watching to see if the froth will be let out slowly or blow off in a big move that takes the rest of the market with it.
“We expect the push and pull of the Nasdaq to continue and have sustained volatility, in our view, throughout the earnings season,” said Julian Emanuel, head of equity and derivatives strategy at BTIG. “Volatility could be to the upside, as well as the downside, but in our view, in aggregate, the Nasdaq is likely to correct.”
Emanuel said the volatile reversal in the Nasdaq does not bode well for the Nasdaq, and it could see a 10% correction. There’s been a surge of retail activity in some of the frothiest names, such as Tesla, which surged from about $1,000 at the end of June to a high of $1,795 during Monday’s session. It is since about $300 per share lower.
“The combination of public participation and just incredible valuations makes the sector very, very vulnerable. ... It’s the sector with the highest earnings expectations,” said Emanuel. “There’s virtually nothing that management can say at these valuations that’s going to create further upside to these names.”
Tesla and Microsoft report earnings Wednesday, and Twitter reports Thursday.

A bump up in stimulus

As Congress heads back to Washington in the coming week, expectations are rising that the fiscal stimulus package could be slightly more than Republicans were previously expected to approve.
When Congress broke for the July 4 holiday, there was a big divide on how much stimulus should be added, on top of the $2.4 trillion already adopted. The Democratic proposal was for $3 trillion, while Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell said no more than $1 trillion. Now the gulf has narrowed, but House Speaker Nancy Pelosi said the $1.3 trillion under discussions is not enough.
Cornerstone Macro’s Andy Laperriere said the package could now be $1.5 trillion or more, more than he expected just several weeks ago. He said more money is now expected for state and local governments, local schools, public health, virus testing and payments to support individuals..
“Republicans really want to use this bill to encourage and incentivize businesses and schools to open. But I think the big thing is a month ago, the top priority of Republicans was to keep this bill small,” he said.
One of the most controversial elements of the CARES stimulus package was the $600 weekly payment to people who were already collecting unemployment.
The payment is likely to be significantly reduced and then ultimately phased out, but that will only come after compromise. “There’s going to be some lines-in-the-sand issues, and this is one of them,” said Laperriere, head of policy at Cornerstone.
President Donald Trump has said he won’t sign the bill unless there is a payroll tax cut, which was previously rejected by Congress. Payroll taxes are paid by both employers and employees, and they fund government programs, including Medicare and Social Security.
Strategists said the market could react to the deliberations if they take longer than expected, or the funds are viewed as insufficient.
Michael Schumacher, Wells Fargo director of rate strategy, said the bond market will focus on how quickly the government plans to payout the stimulus and also the degree to which the Treasury will ultimately have to increase auction sizes to pay for it.
If Congress keeps to its schedule, it needs to approve the package before the end of the month, when it heads to another recess for the entire month of August.

This past week saw the following moves in the S&P:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE FULL S&P TREE MAP FOR THE PAST WEEK!)

Major Indices for this past week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE MAJOR INDICES FOR THE PAST WEEK!)

Major Futures Markets as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE MAJOR FUTURES INDICES AS OF FRIDAY!)

Economic Calendar for the Week Ahead:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE FULL ECONOMIC CALENDAR FOR THE WEEK AHEAD!)

Percentage Changes for the Major Indices, WTD, MTD, QTD, YTD as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

S&P Sectors for the Past Week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Major Indices Pullback/Correction Levels as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!

Major Indices Rally Levels as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Most Anticipated Earnings Releases for this week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Here are the upcoming IPO's for this week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Friday's Stock Analyst Upgrades & Downgrades:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART LINK #1!)
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART LINK #2!)

The Good and the Bad from Earnings This Week

Earnings season began at the start of this week with Pepsi (PEP) and the first of the major US banks and brokers reporting Q2 numbers. It was a light week with only 32 companies reporting through Thursday, but in the coming weeks, we'll see 100+ reports on multiple trading days.
From our Earnings Explorer tool, below is a recap of the results from this week's earnings reports. 78% of companies that reported this week beat consensus analyst EPS estimates, while 72% topped consensus sales estimates. Those are both strong numbers. In terms of future projections, 16% of companies raised guidance, and not one company lowered guidance. That's rare even with the very low number of reports so far.
While guidance and beat rates were strong, investors still used earnings reports as an opportunity to sell. The average one-day share price change this week for companies in reaction to their earnings reports was a decline of 0.57%. All of those declines came on the initial gap down at the open, however. After averaging a gap down of 0.76% at the open of trading following the earnings release, the average stock that reported gained 0.21% from the open to the close. (The gap down of 0.76% and the open to close gain of 0.21% adds up to the full-day decline of 0.57% mentioned earlier.)
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
Below is a table showing all 32 companies that reported Q2 numbers this week (through Thursday). The list is sorted by one-day share price reaction from best to worst. Alcoa (AA) had the best price reaction to earnings this week with a gain of 6.39% yesterday. WNS Global (WNS) put up the second-biggest gain at 6.36%. The next best-performing stocks in reaction to earnings this week only gained 3%+ -- USB and HOMB. Other stocks that reported this week that gained in response to their earnings reports include Morgan Stanley (MS), Goldman Sachs (GS), Taiwan Semi (TSM), Johnson & Johnson (JNJ), and JP Morgan (JPM).
On the downside, AngioDynamics (ANGO) saw the worst share price reaction to earnings this week when it fell 11.51% on Thursday. Sleep Number (SNBR) was second-worst with a one-day drop of 9.19% yesterday as well.
While MS, GS, and JPM all posted gains in reaction to earnings this week, other banks like Citi (C), Wells Fargo (WFC), and Bank of America (BAC) reacted negatively with each falling 4% or more.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Retail Sales Beat Again

Retail sales data for June was reported on Thursday, handily beating expectations for the second consecutive month. As shown in the LPL Chart of the Day, June saw a 7.5% increase month over month, compared with Bloomberg’s consensus expectations for a 5% gain. This comes on the heels of a more than 18% gain in May, but also following by far the lowest reading ever, a 14.7% decline in April.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
Pent-up demand and the continued easing of lockdowns during June likely contributed to the large increase, which saw sales rise across most categories. Sales spiked 8.2% at auto dealers, but even sales excluding autos and gas rose 6.7%. Clothing store sales more than doubled (+105.1%) while sales in the hard-hit food services and drinking places climbed 20%.
“Consumer spending is still far below pre-pandemic levels and many of the real-time data we are monitoring have begun to level off in the past month,” said LPL Financial Chief Market Strategist Ryan Detrick. “We remain encouraged by the strong rebound in May and June, but would expect more gradual gains for retail sales in the second half of the year.”

Why A Potential Democrat Sweep May Not Be A Market Worry

Based on the latest polling data, there’s growing consensus that former Vice President Joe Biden potentially may win the election and Democrats possibly may sweep Congress. Some might think this could be a negative for stocks, as a higher corporate tax rate that reduces earnings could be part of the Democratic platform.
Early writers of the US Constitution were worried about one party having too much power that could enable factions in Washington, DC, to enact more extreme policies and political ideals, upsetting the carefully balanced apple cart. As we noted in our recently released Midyear Outlook 2020, stocks historically have performed quite well when Congress has been split, although stocks actually have done better than most probably realized when the Democrats were in full control.
“Higher corporate taxes are quite likely should we see a potential Democratic sweep,” said LPL Financial Chief Market Strategist Ryan Detrick. “But to blindly say stocks will do poorly is quite a stretch, as historically stocks have done rather well under this .”
As shown in the LPL Chart of the Day, the S&P 500 Index has been higher 9 of the past 10 times and 15 of the past 18 times Democrats controlled both the White House and Congress. Although LPL Research anticipates a likely split Congress in November, with the list of overall worries growing, we don’t think a potential Democratic sweep should be at the top of investors’ list of worries.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Best of July Likely Over

NASDAQ’s mid-year rally came to an end on Tuesday, July 14. During the rally’s 12-day stretch beginning on the third to last day of June through the ninth trading day in July, NASDAQ gained 4.7%. This is well above its average performance since 1985 but less than half of its best showing from 1999. At NASDAQ’s high close during the rally on July 10 it was up 6.0%. Historically around this time in July is when the market has begun to weaken as NASDAQ’s full-month average performance is just 0.9% since 1985.
In the following chart, July’s seasonal pattern over the last 21 years has been plotted with July 2020, plotted on the right axis for comparison through yesterday’s close. This July’s well above average performance so far called for a second, larger range in order to aid in the comparison. Over the last 21 years the market’s trend has been lower beginning right around mid-month through the close. DJIA, S&P 500, NASDAQ, Russell 1000 & 2000 have on average given back some or all of their first half of July gains.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

STOCK MARKET VIDEO: Stock Market Analysis Video for Week Ending July 17th, 2020

(CLICK HERE FOR THE YOUTUBE VIDEO!)

STOCK MARKET VIDEO: ShadowTrader Video Weekly 7.19.20

(CLICK HERE FOR THE YOUTUBE VIDEO!)
Here are the most notable companies (tickers) reporting earnings in this upcoming trading week ahead-
  • $TSLA
  • $MSFT
  • $KO
  • $SNAP
  • $LMT
  • $HAL
  • $TWTR
  • $T
  • $AAL
  • $LUV
  • $INTC
  • $BMRC
  • $PM
  • $CMG
  • $VZ
  • $PLD
  • $NDAQ
  • $NVS
  • $UAL
  • $MAN
  • $LOGI
  • $IBM
  • $CALM
  • $OGI
  • $AXP
  • $PHG
  • $BIIB
  • $TSCO
  • $LII
  • $ONB
  • $TMO
  • $SYF
  • $TXN
  • $KEY
  • $CIT
  • $MKTX
  • $CTXS
  • $ISRG
  • $CMA
  • $CHKP
  • $LLNW
  • $HCA
  • $CDNS
(CLICK HERE FOR NEXT WEEK'S MOST NOTABLE EARNINGS RELEASES!)
(CLICK HERE FOR NEXT WEEK'S HIGHEST VOLATILITY EARNINGS RELEASES!)
(CLICK HERE FOR MOST NOTABLE EARNINGS RELEASES FOR MONDAY, JULY 20TH, 2020!)
Below are some of the notable companies coming out with earnings releases this upcoming trading week ahead which includes the date/time of release & consensus estimates courtesy of Earnings Whispers:

Monday 7.20.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR MONDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Monday 7.20.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR MONDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Tuesday 7.21.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR TUESDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Tuesday 7.21.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR TUESDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Wednesday 7.22.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR WEDNESDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Wednesday 7.22.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR WEDNESDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Thursday 7.23.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR THURSDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES LINK #1!)
(CLICK HERE FOR THURSDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES LINK #2!)

Thursday 7.23.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THURSDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Friday 7.24.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR FRIDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Friday 7.24.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR FRIDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Tesla, Inc. -

Tesla, Inc. (TSLA) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 4:10 PM ET on Wednesday, July 22, 2020. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $0.71 per share on revenue of $4.67 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is ($0.23) per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 47% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for year-over-year earnings growth of 44.53% with revenue decreasing by 26.45%. Short interest has decreased by 30.5% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 75.5% from its open following the earnings release to be 137.1% above its 200 day moving average of $632.92. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Wednesday, July 15, 2020 there was some notable buying of 35,283 contracts of the $100.00 put expiring on Friday, July 24, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 15.2% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 8.1% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Microsoft Corp. $202.88

Microsoft Corp. (MSFT) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 4:05 PM ET on Wednesday, July 22, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $1.39 per share on revenue of $36.64 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $1.50 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 80% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for year-over-year earnings growth of 1.46% with revenue increasing by 8.67%. Short interest has decreased by 19.1% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 12.7% from its open following the earnings release to be 21.1% above its 200 day moving average of $167.59. Overall earnings estimates have been revised higher since the company's last earnings release. On Monday, July 13, 2020 there was some notable buying of 19,045 contracts of the $215.00 call expiring on Friday, July 24, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 5.8% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 1.9% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Coca-Cola Company $46.82

Coca-Cola Company (KO) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 5:55 AM ET on Tuesday, July 21, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.40 per share on revenue of $8.69 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.44 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 49% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 36.51% with revenue decreasing by 13.07%. Short interest has decreased by 15.1% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 2.0% from its open following the earnings release to be 7.9% below its 200 day moving average of $50.84. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Monday, July 13, 2020 there was some notable buying of 9,929 contracts of the $50.00 call expiring on Friday, July 24, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 4.3% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 4.0% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Snap Inc. $24.54

Snap Inc. (SNAP) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 4:10 PM ET on Tuesday, July 21, 2020. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $0.09 per share on revenue of $418.60 million and the Earnings Whisper ® number is ($0.07) per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 58% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 12.50% with revenue increasing by 7.88%. Short interest has decreased by 9.1% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 61.7% from its open following the earnings release to be 43.5% above its 200 day moving average of $17.10. Overall earnings estimates have been revised higher since the company's last earnings release. On Friday, July 10, 2020 there was some notable buying of 43,923 contracts of the $26.00 call expiring on Friday, July 31, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 14.8% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 17.4% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Lockheed Martin Corp. $368.50

Lockheed Martin Corp. (LMT) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:30 AM ET on Tuesday, July 21, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $5.71 per share on revenue of $15.43 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $5.85 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 59% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for year-over-year earnings growth of 14.20% with revenue increasing by 6.95%. Short interest has decreased by 9.0% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted lower by 3.8% from its open following the earnings release to be 3.4% below its 200 day moving average of $381.30. Overall earnings estimates have been revised higher since the company's last earnings release. On Friday, July 17, 2020 there was some notable buying of 1,176 contracts of the $445.00 call expiring on Friday, August 28, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 5.5% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 1.8% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Halliburton Company $13.08

Halliburton Company (HAL) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:45 AM ET on Monday, July 20, 2020. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $0.11 per share on revenue of $3.80 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is ($0.10) per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 22% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 131.43% with revenue decreasing by 35.92%. Short interest has increased by 31.2% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 89.6% from its open following the earnings release to be 19.5% below its 200 day moving average of $16.25. Overall earnings estimates have been revised higher since the company's last earnings release. On Thursday, July 9, 2020 there was some notable buying of 11,235 contracts of the $7.50 put expiring on Friday, January 15, 2021. Option traders are pricing in a 8.6% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 3.4% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Twitter, Inc. $35.81

Twitter, Inc. (TWTR) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:00 AM ET on Thursday, July 23, 2020. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $0.01 per share on revenue of $682.46 million and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.01 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 48% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 104.55% with revenue decreasing by 18.89%. Short interest has decreased by 21.0% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 24.4% from its open following the earnings release to be 12.3% above its 200 day moving average of $31.88. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Wednesday, July 8, 2020 there was some notable buying of 11,759 contracts of the $40.00 call expiring on Friday, August 21, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 11.9% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 13.0% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

AT&T Corp. $30.25

AT&T Corp. (T) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:55 AM ET on Thursday, July 23, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.78 per share on revenue of $43.06 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.79 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 44% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 12.36% with revenue decreasing by 4.22%. The stock has drifted lower by 2.1% from its open following the earnings release to be 12.9% below its 200 day moving average of $34.72. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Friday, July 10, 2020 there was some notable buying of 47,015 contracts of the $30.00 put expiring on Friday, August 21, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 4.2% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 3.6% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

American Airlines Group Inc. $11.91

American Airlines Group Inc. (AAL) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:30 AM ET on Thursday, July 23, 2020. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $6.92 per share on revenue of $1.43 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is ($6.81) per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 22% expecting an earnings miss. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 480.22% with revenue decreasing by 88.04%. Short interest has increased by 76.2% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted lower by 0.1% from its open following the earnings release to be 42.5% below its 200 day moving average of $20.70. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Wednesday, July 15, 2020 there was some notable buying of 21,664 contracts of the $12.50 call expiring on Friday, July 31, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 13.6% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 5.0% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Southwest Airlines Co. $34.13

Southwest Airlines Co. (LUV) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:00 AM ET on Thursday, July 23, 2020. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $2.53 per share on revenue of $540.30 million and the Earnings Whisper ® number is ($2.50) per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 6% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 284.67% with revenue decreasing by 90.86%. Short interest has increased by 87.3% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 17.2% from its open following the earnings release to be 23.6% below its 200 day moving average of $44.69. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Friday, July 17, 2020 there was some notable buying of 5,677 contracts of the $36.00 call expiring on Friday, July 31, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 9.3% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 3.1% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

DISCUSS!

What are you all watching for in this upcoming trading week?
I hope you all have a wonderful weekend and a great trading week ahead StockMarket.
submitted by bigbear0083 to StockMarket [link] [comments]


2020.07.17 19:19 _MMCXII Running a React App in an Nginx Container with Letsencrypt

Hello all,
I'm having some unexpected issues with getting Letsencrypt set up for my Nginx image. I started off following this guide which I've seen posted here a few times, however the Nginx config used in this guide wasn't working for me so I found this second guide and the Nginx config worked just fine. I created and deployed a test application successfully. However, now I am in the process of deploying my actual project and I am getting an Unauthorized, Invalid response error when attempting to initialize Letsencrypt using the script from the first guide. The error message says: "To fix these errors, please make sure that your domain name was entered correctly and the DNS A/AAAA record(s) for that domain contain(s) the right IP address." which I believe I have done correctly using the Digitalocean dashboard.
If I start the Nginx image without using docker-compose to run certbot, the application runs just fine (albeit without its url, just its IP address).
Any help getting this setup to work, or any better setup someone can point me to I would greatly appreciate it!
Here are my relevant files:
nginx default.conf
server { server_name my.domain.app; listen 80; listen [::]:80; return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri; root /usshare/nginx/html; index index.html index.htm; location /.well-known/acme-challenge/ { root /vawww/certbot; } } server { listen 443 ssl; listen [::]:443 ssl; root /usshare/nginx/html; index index.html index.htm; ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/my.domain.app/fullchain.pem; ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/my.domain.app/privkey.pem; include /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-nginx.conf; ssl_dhparam /etc/letsencrypt/ssl-dhparams.pem; } 
Dockerfile
#* ########################### #* ##### Stage 0: Base ####### #* ########################### FROM node:12.18.1-buster-slim as base # Ensure container is up to date RUN apt-get update && apt-get install --no-install-recommends --yes openssl # Establish working directory to contain application WORKDIR /app #* ########################### #* #### Stage 1: Builder ##### #* ########################### FROM base as builder # Copy build tools COPY scripts/build.js ./scripts/build.js COPY config/webpack ./config/webpack COPY config/eslint ./config/eslint COPY config/babel.config.js ./config/babel.config.js # Copy configuration files used for builing application COPY package.json yarn.lock .npmrc tsconfig.json .env* ./ # Install Production Dependencies RUN yarn install --production --pure-lockfile RUN mkdir tmp && cp -a ./node_modules/. ./tmp/node_modules # Install Dev Dependencies RUN yarn install --pure-lockfile # Copy source code and type definitions COPY public ./public COPY types ./types COPY src ./src # Build applicaton RUN yarn build #* ########################### #* ##### Stage 2: Nginx ###### #* ########################### FROM nginx:1.19.0-alpine # Set up Nginx config and remove default files RUN rm -rf /usshare/nginx/html/* RUN rm /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf COPY ./config/dockenginx/default.conf /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf # Copy Production Dependencies COPY --from=builder /app/tmp/node_modules /usshare/nginx/html/node_modules # Copy Application COPY --from=builder /app/dist /usshare/nginx/html # Expose HTTP and HTTPS ports EXPOSE 80 443 
docker-compose.yml
version: "3" services: web: image: myorg/myimage:tag restart: unless-stopped volumes: - ./data/certbot/conf:/etc/letsencrypt - ./data/certbot/www:/vawww/certbot ports: - "80:80" - "443:443" command: '/bin/sh -c ''while :; do sleep 6h & wait $${!}; web -s reload; done & nginx -g "daemon off;"''' certbot: image: certbot/certbot restart: unless-stopped volumes: - ./data/certbot/conf:/etc/letsencrypt - ./data/certbot/www:/vawww/certbot entrypoint: "/bin/sh -c 'trap exit TERM; while :; do certbot renew; sleep 12h & wait $${!}; done;'" 
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2020.07.01 20:19 haveyouheardaboutit Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
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2020.07.01 19:55 haveyouheardaboutit Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analysed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralised and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since end of January 2019 with daily transaction rate growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralised and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. Maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realised early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralised, secure and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralisation. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue disecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as:
“A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronise cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next he states that: >“blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”.* For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralised and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimisation on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (>66%) double spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralisation.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralised nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching their transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public.They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers.The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translates to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS & shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralised too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralised in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. Faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, R&D roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalised: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: > “all programmes have two basic components, data – what the programme knows – and behaviour – what the programme can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviours in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behaviour are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.”
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: > OCaml is a general purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognised by academics and won a so called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities safety is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa for Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue:
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships  
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organisations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggest that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already taking advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, AirBnB, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are build on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”*
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They dont just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities) also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiatives (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggest in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures & Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
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